Until recently the cytokines* interleukins 12 and 23 were believed to be very important in driving inflammation in MS. A drug that neutralises these cytokines has failed to have the desired effect on the disease thus questioning the current dogma. As a result of this study most immunologists have changed their thinking about the disease. Although this trial was negative the people with MS who volunteered to participate in this study have made a very valuable contribution to the field. Negative trial results can be as important as positive ones; in this case the results have changed the way we think about the disease.
* cytokines is a term immunologists use to describe the protein messages that cell send to each other to communicate; not too dissimilar to the role of hormones!