Research: CCSVI monthly April

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Will Appear Eventually.

Wuerfel Née Tysiak E, et al. Frequent but nonspecific venous narrowing in paediatric multiple sclerosis .Mult Scler. 2012 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

In a retrospective study, we included 64 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with relapsing–remitting MS and who were referred to MRI including venography (MRV) during the first 4 months of disease onset. For a control group, we collected 54 MRV data of children, who had been investigated with MRI for different clinical reasons (headache, epileptic seizures, vertigo), but who showed neuroradiologically inconspicuous results. The cross-sectional blood vessel areas of the internal jugular veins were measured at the base of the skull and the narrowest part of the vein in its course; the lumen reduction was computed as a ratio, accordingly. Three groups were defined and a ‘relative’ stenosis value (SV) assigned to each group: (1) 0–50% vessel narrowing → SV 0, (2) 51–80% vessel narrowing → SV 1 and (3) >80% vessel narrowing → SV 2. The venous SV score was determined by summation of the SV of both sides. In both groups we saw a high prevalence of venous narrowing displayed by a mean SV score of 2.6 (SD 1.3) in the MS group and 2.9 (SD 1.2) in the control group. Only six paediatric MS patients and three controls did not show any internal jugular vein narrowing. In contrast, 20 MS patients and 20 controls presented with bilateral internal jugular vein narrowing above 80%. Differences between the two cohorts were not statistically significant. No correlation was found with the clinico-neurological parameters of disease. In summary, internal jugular vein narrowing is a frequent finding in children and adolescents independent of the diagnosis of MS.

If CCSVI is central to the causation of MS you would expect the problem to be found in children before multiple sclerosis is diagnosed. This suggests that there is detectable apparent narrowing of veins, but that they also occur in non MSers, which may question the significance of this in the causative role. Of course you may say that this was a retrospective study and that they did not have MS when the assessment of vein function was made so the veins were not blocked until MS developed,  but then we had this next post also

Amato MP et al. No association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis Mult Scler  April [Epub ahead of print]

Objective: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was hypothesized to play a causative role in multiple sclerosis (MS). The assessment of pediatric-onset MS (POMS) may provide a unique window of opportunity to study hypothesized risk factors in close temporal association with the onset of the disease.
Methods: Internal jugular veins, vertebral veins and intracranial veins were evaluated with extracranial and intracranial ultrasound in 15 POMS and 16 healthy controls. Assessor’s blinding was maintained during the study. We considered subjects positive to CCSVI when at least two criteria were fulfilled.
Results: CCSVI frequency was comparable between POMS and controls (p > 0.05). Clinical features were not significantly different between CCSVI-positive and CCSVI-negative patients.
Conclusions: Our findings add to previous data pointing against a causative role of CCSVI in MS.
 This post further questions a causative role of CCSVI . 

However then we have a more positive reports.

Dake MD, Dantzker N, Bennett WL, Cooke JPEndovascular correction of cerebrovenous anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A retrospective review of an uncontrolled case series.Vasc Med. 2012 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]


Endovascular intervention for obstruction to venous drainage of the head and neck is an established treatment for disorders such as superior vena cava syndrome. Some patients with multiple sclerosis have been observed to have anomalies of the veins draining the head and neck. It is possible that some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis may be secondary to disturbed venous flow. In an uncontrolled clinical series of 40 patients who had been previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, anomalies of the venous drainage of the head and neck were observed, including venous stenoses of the internal jugular veins. In 38 of 40 patients, venous stents were placed with restoration of luminal dimensions and abrogation of the venous pressure gradient. The angiographic and hemodynamic improvement was associated with improvement in symptomatology, most particularly in cognitive and constitutional symptoms that may be related to cerebrovenous flow. Serious complications included death in one subject and stent embolization requiring open heart surgery in another. In conclusion, in this series, endovascular intervention to correct venous stenosis associated with multiple sclerosis was associated with improvement in symptoms possibly related to disturbed venous haemodynamics. However, given the serious adverse events in this small series, a randomized clinical trial is required to confirm these findings, and to determine if the procedure has any effect on the progression of multiple sclerosis, or untoward long-term adverse effects.

This study hailed from Stanford in the USA, which treated the husband of our friend Joan Beal. On face value this sounds promising, with the caveat of the problem. If replicated in randomised trial 


McTaggart RA et al Extracranial Venous Drainage Patterns in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Controls. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:CCSVI hypothesizes an association between impaired extracranial venous drainage and MS. Published sonographic criteria for CCSVI are controversial, and no MR imaging data exist to support the CCSVI hypothesis. Our purpose was to evaluate possible differences in the extracranial venous drainage of MS and healthy controls using both TOF and contrast-enhanced TRICKS MRV.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with MS (n = 19) underwent axial 2D-TOF neck MRV (to assess flattening) and TRICKS MRV (to assess collaterals) at 3T. Two neuroradiologists blinded to cohort status scored IJV flattening and the severity of non-IJV collaterals by using a 4-point qualitative scale (normal = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3). κ was used to assess reader agreement. Comparisons between groups were performed by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The Spearman rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between IJV flattening and collateral scores and, in patients with MS, EDSS scores.

RESULTS: The 2 groups were matched for age and sex (MS, 45 ± 8 years, 79% female; healthy controls, 47 ± 10 years, 65% female). Reader agreement for IJV flattening and collateral severity was good (κ = 0.74) and moderate (κ = 0.58), respectively. While IJV flattening was seen in both patients with MS and healthy controls, scores for the patients with MS were significantly higher (P = .002). Despite a trend, there was no significant difference in collateral scores between groups (P = .063). Mushroom food this means there was no difference. There was a significant positive correlation between flattening and collateral scores (ρ = 0.32, P = .005) and EDSS and flattening scores (ρ = 0.45, P = .004) but not between EDSS and collateral scores (ρ = 0.01, P = .97).

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that patients with MS have greater IJV flattening and a trend toward more non-IJV collaterals than healthy subjects. The role that this finding plays in the pathogenesis or progression of MS, if any, requires further study. 

This study hailed also from Stanford in the USA. On face value this suggests vascular effects in MSers, the more apparent flattening is associated with more disability

 There was a new post from the Bard

Zamboni P et al. Assessment of cerebral venous return by a novel plethysmography method. Journal of Vascular Surgery [Epub ahead of print]

Background: Magnetic
resonance imaging and echo color Doppler (ECD) scan techniques do not
accurately assess the cerebral venous return. This generated
considerable scientific controversy linked with the diagnosis of a
vascular syndrome known as chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
(CCSVI) characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain. The
purpose of this study was to assess the cerebral venous return in
relation to the change in position by means of a novel cervical plethysmography method.

Methods: This was a single-center,
cross-sectional, blinded case-control study conducted at the Vascular
Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Italy. The study involved 40
healthy controls (HCs; 18 women and 22 men) with a mean age of 41.5 ±
14.4 years, and 44 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS; 25 women and 19
men) with a mean age of 41.0 ± 12.1 years. All participants were
previously scanned using ECD sonography, and further subset in HC (CCSVI
negative at ECD) and CCSVI groups. Subjects blindly underwent cervical
plethysmography, tipping them from the upright (90°) to supine position
(0°) in a chair. Once the blood volume stabilized, they were returned to
the upright position, allowing blood to drain from the neck. We
measured venous volume (VV), filling time (FT), filling gradient (FG)
required to achieve 90% of VV, residual volume (RV), emptying time (ET),
emptying gradient (EG) required to achieve 90% of emptying volume (EV)
where EV = VV-RV, also analyzing the considered parameters by receiver
operating characteristic (ROC) curves and principal component
mathematical analysis.

Results: The rate at which venous
blood discharged in the vertical position (EG) was significantly faster
in the controls (2.73 mL/second ± 1.63) compared with the patients with
CCSVI (1.73 mL/second ± 0.94; P = .001). In addition,
respectively, in controls and in patients with CCSVI, the following
parameters were highly significantly different: FT 5.81 ± 1.99 seconds
vs 4.45 ± 2.16 seconds (P = .003); FG 0.92 ± 0.45 mL/second vs 1.50 ± 0.85 mL/second (P < .001); RV 0.54 ± 1.31 mL vs 1.37 ± 1.34 mL (P = .005); ET 1.84 ± 0.54 seconds vs 2.66 ± 0.95 seconds (P
< .001). Mathematical analysis demonstrated a higher variability of
the dynamic process of cerebral venous return in CCSVI.

Conclusions Cerebral
venous return characteristics of the patients with CCSVI were markedly
different from those of the controls. In addition, our results suggest
that cervical plethysmography has great potential as an inexpensive
screening device and as a post-operative monitoring tool.

Once validated by others, tools to screen and monitor efficacy (if present) duration will be very useful.

Simka M et al. Diagnostic accuracy of current sonographic criteria for the detection of outflow abnormalities in the internal jugular veins.Phlebology. 2012 Apr 23. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at evaluation of the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography for the assessment of abnormalities in the internal jugular veins (IJVs).

METHOD: One hundred and sixteen IJVs were assessed in 58 patients with associated multiple sclerosis. Findings of Doppler sonography were compared with results of the reference test: catheter venography.
RESULTS: At least one positive extracranial sonographic criterion suggesting venous abnormality was found in 92.2% of the assessed veins. Yet, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of sonography were low: 93.4%, 12.0%, 79.4% and 33.3% for at least one positive criterion, and for at least two positive criteria: 29.3%, 75.0%, 81.8% and 21.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:Our research has shown that currently used extracranial sonographic criteria for the detection of obstructive venous abnormalities in the IJVs are of limited diagnostic value. For the time being, diagnosis of this vascular pathology should be given using catheter venography.

Whilst this study is finding ultrasonic changes in most MSers, this is not sufficient for CCSVI. This study adds no clarity and it seems clear to me that there needs to be guidelines and adherence to methods of assessment and adherence to criteria for definition of CCSVI that should be required for publication. This is because more and more ill-defined studies helps no one and adds to confusion. I suppose however it questions the technology of sonography for detecting anything.

OBJECTIVES: The traditional view that multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease has recently been challenged by the claim that MS is caused by chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). Although several studies have questioned this vascular theory, the CCSVI controversy is still ongoing. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of CCSVI in Danish MS patients using sonography and compare these findings with MRI measures of venous flow and morphology.

METHODS: We investigated cervical and cerebral veins in 24 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 15 healthy controls, using extracranial high-resolution ultrasound colour Doppler (US-CD) and transcranial colour Doppler sonography (TCDS), as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast MR blood flow measurements (PC-MR) of the cervical veins.
RESULTS: US-CD could not identify the left internal jugular vein (IJV) in one MS patient, other ultrasound examinations were normal in patients with MS. There was no difference in mean cross-sectional area of the IJV in MS patients compared with controls. Only one patient with MS and two healthy controls fulfilled one CCSVI criterion, and none fulfilled more than one CCSVI criterion. MR venography showed insignificant IJV stenosis (1-49%) in two patients with MS, whereas 50-69% IJV stenosis was detected in two healthy controls. There was no difference in PC-MR measurements of mean IJV blood flow between patients with MS and controls.
CONCLUSION: Our results do not corroborate the presence of vascular pathology in RRMS and we found no evidence supporting the CCSVI hypothesis.
You can read the the conclusion and maybe you will argue that it depends on protocol.

Now some more abstracts from American  Association of Neurology 2012 Meeting..Warning the content of these reports have not been fully peer reviewed.

[P05.125] A Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) Claudiu I. Diaconu, Susan Staugaitis, Jennifer McBride, Cynthia Schwanger, Alexander Rae-Grant, Robert Fox

OBJECTIVE: To assess for venous abnormalities possibly related to CCSVI in MS and control cadavers.
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is a new theory of MS
pathogenesis involving alterations in cerebral venous outflow. There has
been little pathologic study of venous structures related to CCSVI.  
We harvested bilateral internal jugular (IJV), subclavian,
brachiocephalic, and azygos (AZY) veins from 7 deceased MS patients and 6
non-MS controls. Veins were flushed, injected with silicone, dissected
en bloc, and fixed. All valves and structural abnormalities were
characterized and photographed using a stereomicroscope.
Valvular and other intraluminal abnormalities with potential
hemodynamic consequences were identified in 5 of 7 MS patients (7
abnormalities) and in 1 of 6 controls (1 abnormality). These
abnormalities included circumferential membranous structures (1 MS; 1
control), longitudinally-oriented membranous structures (3 MS), single
valve flap replacing IJV valve (2 MS), and enlarged and malpositioned
valve leaflets (1 MS). Significant stenosis was seen in 2 MS and 1
control. Additionally, several minor anatomic variations without
expected hemodynamic consequences were observed similarly in both MS and
controls. These included valves with 3 leaflets, the presence of AZY
valves, additional (duplicate) normal-appearing IJV valves, and small
accessory valve leaflets. Histologic evaluation is underway and will be
reported along with additional cases. CONCLUSIONS: Post mortem
examination of the IJV and AZY veins in MS and non-MS controls
demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities as well as anatomic
variations. Vein wall stenosis occurred at similar frequency in both
groups. However, the frequency of intraluminal abnormalities with
possible hemodynamic consequences appeared higher in MS patients
compared to healthy controls, although the current sample size is
limited. These results suggest that MRV studies evaluating vein wall
stenoses may be less effective than ultrasound in identifying venous
abnormalities in CCSVI. In addition, CCSVI ultrasound studies should
include focused evaluation of intraluminal abnormalities

You can read the conclusions, but surely it is important to have performed the ultrasound to check that the criteria of CCSVI was fullfilled before assessing histologically. Without this knowledge there are clear problems, but if there was 100% specificity for MS as originally claimed then that would not be an issue. However I think most other studies are not showing a 100% and so this is important in the validity  of the study.

systematic review was undertaken to examine the evidence of an
association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI)
and multiple sclerosis (MS) using rigorous methodological analyses.
It has been proposed that MS is caused by ultrasound detectable
abnormalities in the anatomy and flow of intra and extra-cerebral veins,
a condition termed CCSVI.
DESIGN/METHODS: A literature search of
Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and
EMBASE was conducted. Eligible studies used ultrasound to diagnose CCSVI
and compared MS patients with either healthy controls (HC) and/or
patients with other neurological diseases (OND). A random effects model
was used and odds ratios (OR) and I2 values were generated.
Eight studies compared the frequency of CCSVI in MS patients vs. HC; 4
studies compared MS vs. OND. CCSVI diagnosis was more common in MS vs.
HC (OR 13.5, p=0.002), but there was marked heterogeneity in both the
frequency and magnitude of this association. A statistically significant
but reduced association remained using the most conservative analysis
(OR 3.4, p=0.02), which involved removing Zamboni’s initial study and
adding a negative CCSVI study. The studies comparing MS and OND also
found CCSVI more commonly in MS, but this was not statistically
significant (OR 32.5, p=0.09). The OR dropped to 3.4 (p=0.11) with
removal of Zamboni’s study. No study reported tests of blinding of
technicians or radiologists.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review
did find a statistically significant greater odds of CCSVI in MS
patients vs. HC, but not in MS vs. OND. Limitations including
uncertainty regarding blinding and marked heterogeneity of the results,
and do not allow for definitive conclusions. These early results raise
the possibility that CCSVI may not be MS-specific, and it may follow,
not precede onset of disease. Further high quality controlled studies
are needed to definitively determine if CCSVI is truly associated with

I don’t think we need to comment on this because this has been covered in one of our previous posts (click).
Dolic et al.

To investigate the association between presence of a newly proposed
vascular condition called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
(CCSVI) and environmental factors in a large volunteer control group
without a known central nervous system pathology.  
role of intra- and extra-cranial venous system impairment in the
pathogenesis of various vascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative
neurological disorders, as well as in aging, has not been studied in
DESIGN/METHODS: The data were collected in a prospective
study from 252 subjects who were screened for medical history as part of
the entry criteria and participated in the case-control study of CCSVI
prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and were analyzed post
hoc. All participants underwent physical and Doppler sonography
examinations, and were assessed with a structured environmental
questionnaire. Fullfilment of ≥ 2 positive venous hemodynamic (VH)
criteria on Doppler sonography was considered indicative of CCSVI
diagnosis. Risk and protective factors associated with CCSVI were
analyzed using logistic regression analysis.  
RESULTS: Seventy
(27.8%) subjects presented with CCSVI diagnosis and 153 (60.7%)
presented with one or more VH criteria. The presence of heart disease
(p=.001), especially heart murmurs (p=.007), a history of infectious
mononucleosis (p=.002), and irritable bowel syndrome (p=.005) were
associated with more frequent CCSVI diagnosis. Current or previous
smoking (p=.029) showed a trend for association with more frequent CCSVI
diagnosis, while use of dietary supplements (p=.018) showed a trend for
association with less frequent CCSVI diagnosis. 
Risk factors for CCSVI differ from established risk factors for
peripheral venous diseases. Vascular, infectious and inflammatory
factors were associated with higher CCSVI frequency. 
Conclusions say it all, but as these people also had MS where history of mononucleosis and smoking are risk factors for MS, it would not be surprising if there was some concordance. 

[S10.005] A Study of CCSVI with Imaging-Blinded Assessment: Neurosonography Update

Barreto, Staley Brod, Thanh-Tung Bui, James Jamelka, Larry Kramer,
Kelly Ton, Alan Cohen, John Lindsey, Flavia Nelson, Ponnada Narayana,
Jerry Wolinsky,

chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) exist, is it
associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and what tools might establish
its presence? We sought to determine if neurosonography (NS) provides
reliable information on cerebral venous outflow patterns, if NS findings
are supported by 3T magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and if NS
and/or MRV reflect transluminal venography findings. We detail NS
findings on the first 193 participants. BACKGROUND: CCSVI is postulated to have a role in MS pathogenesis. DESIGN/METHODS:
TB, blind to the subject’s diagnosis, used high resolution B-mode
imaging with color and spectral flow Doppler to investigate extracranial
and intracranial venous drainage. Results were evaluated by ADB with
neither subject contact nor patient information; only KT and JSW could
access the complete database. RESULTS: 10 healthy controls, 18
cerebrovascular diseases, 27 other neurological diseases, 138 MS (7
clinically isolated syndrome, 80 relapsing remitting, 35 secondary
progressive, 15 primary progressive, 1 progressive relapsing) were
studied. MS patients were older than non-MS subjects (48.4±9.8 v
44.3±11.4 years), durations from first symptoms and diagnosis of
13.7±9.4 and 10.3±8.0 years, and EDSS 2.9±2.0. 47 subjects fulfilled one
of five criteria for CCSVI proposed by Zamboni; 8 fulfilled two
criteria and none fulfilled >2 criteria. The distribution of subjects
with 0, 1 or 2 criteria did not differ significantly across all
diagnostic groupings, between MS and non-MS subjects, or within the MS
subgroups. No significant differences emerged between MS and non-MS
subjects for measures of cross-sectional areas of the internal jugular
veins at fixed anatomic sites or for extracranial or intracranial venous
flow rates. CONCLUSIONS: NS findings described as CCSVI are much
less prevalent than previously reported and do not distinguish MS from
other subjects. Data will be updated prior to the meeting. Correlations
of NS and MRV for 37 MS subjects are reported separately.

This is  a pretty damming report against the CCSVI concept being real…. but the protocol was not the Prof Z way I hear you say.

[S10.006] Prospective, Case-Control Study of CCSVI with
Imaging-Blinded Assessment: Progress Report Correlating Magnetic
Resonance Venography with Neurosonography
. Larry
Kramer, Houston, TX, Andrew Barreto, Sugar Land, TX, Thanh-Tung Bui,
Staley Brod, James Jemelka, Kelly Ton, Alan Cohen, John Lindsey, Flavia
Nelson, Ponnada Narayana, Jerry Wolinsky, Houston, TX

Does chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) exist, is it
associated with MS, and what tools might establish its presence? Steps
included: determine if neurosonography (NS) provides information on
cerebral venous outflow patterns suitable as a first screen, learn if NS
findings are supported by 3T magnetic resonance venography (MRV) of the
head, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis, and evaluate if NS and/or MRV
reflect ‘true’ venous anatomy seen by transluminal venography (TV). This
report details the correlation of MRV and NS findings on the first 37
MS participants to undergo both procedures. BACKGROUND: CCSVI has a postulated role in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN/METHODS:
Participants provided informed consent. Extracranial and intracranial
venous drainage was investigated with high resolution B-mode imaging
with color and spectral flow Doppler, performed and recorded by TB,
blind to the subject’s diagnosis. MRV utilized AblavarTM to improve
vascular visualization. NS results were evaluated by ADB, MRV images by
LAK; neither had access to subject information or the other’s data. Only
KT and JSW had complete database access. RESULTS: MS clinical
phenotypes included 1 clinically isolated syndrome, 24 relapsing
remitting, 6 secondary progressive, 5 primary progressive and 1
progressive relapsing. Delay from NS to MRV was 160±77 days. NS
identified 14/37 subjects fulfilling 1 of 5 Zamboni criteria for
anomalous venous outflow; only 1/37 fulfilled 2 criteria required for
CCSVI. MRV identified 5/37 subjects with venous stenosis; 1 Type A and 4
Type C patterns. A Zamboni score <2 by NS was concordant with a
normal venous vascular patterns on MRV for 31/36 subjects, but
discordant for the subject with Zamboni score on NS of 2. CONCLUSIONS:
There was reasonable correlation of between independent assessments of
Zamboni scores on NS and patterns on MRV. These studies suggest that
findings described as CCSVI are not common.


Therefore one must ask why treat a condition that evidence is suggesting does not really exist. Anyway lets wait for the trials and see if the treatment is beneficial

There have been other meeting abstracts

OBJECTIVES: Recently an association has been made
between Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous
Insufficiency (CCSVI) characterized by stenosis and reflux of the
principal extracranial venous drainage including the Internal Jugular
veins (IJV) and the Azygous veins (AZV). This is the first angiographic
study to quantitatively analyze the impact of percutaneous balloon
angioplasty (PTA) on flow dynamics across these lesions.
METHODS: 50 IJV from MS patients with CCSVI and 12
IJV from healthy volunteers underwent detailed angiographic evaluation.
Technical components of all venograms were standardized. Quantitative
analysis included the contrast time of flight (TOF) from the mid IJV to
the superior vena cava, and the primary venous emptying time (PVET),
quantified as >50% of venous emptying, from the IJV. The TOF and PVET
were recorded in patients with CCSVI prior and subsequent to balloon
angioplasty, as well in normal healthy subjects. All data was
prospectively collected, and statistical analysis was performed using
two-tailed Student’s test.
RESULTS: Of the 50 CCSVI-MS patients with IJV
stenosis >70% and reflux underwent balloon angioplasty, technical
success defined as <20% residual IJV stenosis was achieved in 78%
(44/50). Table describes the pre- and post-angioplasty TOF and PVET in
patients with CCSVI, as well as in healthy non-MS patients without any
treatment. CCSVI patients were noted to have a significant improvement
in both the TOF and PVET following balloon angioplasty that paralleled
healthy non-MS subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this prospective pilot study
suggest an association between MS and CCSVI, which results in
abnormally elevated TOF and PEVT through the IJV. Furthermore, balloon
angioplasty these lesions improves the hemodynamic parameters that are
comparable to healthy non-MS patients.

MS patients with CCSVI
Healthy Non-MS
No Treatment
Mean Time (sec.)
St. Dev.

There is still no clarity and some reports may have been missed (based on pubmed) or were too uninteresting/irrelevant to comment on but some interesting publications have been published this month, there may be a weight of evidence building towards the negative side. We must remember that meeting abstracts have not been properly peer-reviewed and we will need to wait until they are published. I think I will concentrate on published obersvations in future also as the subjects in meetings abstracts will occur elsewhere and this gives bias and the information keeps appearing, unless we hear of the results of the blinded trials. 

Why do we not take comments on these posts?
Experience-We learn from the past. I know that this would be managable whilst comments are being read first, but it also saves us being accused of selecting what goes public. 
We are sure many of you would like to make sensible comments that are valid to the debate, but due to probably a minority who spoil it for the majority, we have no desire to recieve and are saddened by the personal abuse that we sometimes, have to endure, such as the beginning of this month and a few days ago and yesterday and the day before that and that etc. We hope you understand.

We are essentially giving you the information and you can make you own mind up!  Should we stop posting on this subject, well no because it is topical and you can see the weight of evidence accumulate, but is is only a very small part of MS research..
 More Next Month, No Doubt

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