Research: Placental Stem cells

Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have stem cell-like features and
immunomodulatory properties. Here we show that hAEC significantly
suppressed splenocyte proliferation in vitro and potently attenuated a
mouse model of
multiple sclerosis
(MS). Central nervous system (CNS) CD3(+) T cell and F4/80(+)
monocyte/macrophage infiltration and demyelination were significantly
reduced with hAEC treatment. Besides the known secretion of
prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), we report the novel finding that hAEC utilize
transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) for immunosuppression.
Neutralization of TGF-β or PGE2 in splenocyte proliferation assays
significantly reduced hAEC-induced suppression. Splenocytes from
hAEC-treated mice showed a Th2 cytokine shift with significantly
elevated IL-5 production. While transferred CFSE-labeled hAEC could be
detected in the lung, none were identified in the CNS or in lymphoid
organs. This is the first report documenting the therapeutic effect of
hAEC in a MS-like model and suggest that hAEC may have potential for use
as therapy for MS.
This study shows the effect of injecting human stem cell-like cells from the placenta, into a mouse that were induced to develop MS-like disease. As can be seen above, the cells appeared to inhibit the development of disease, the control got nothing (should have been dead human cells) whereas the test group got the human cells (hAEC). The majority of animals did not have disease when the cells were first administered the vast majority of animals then went onto have disease. Is this potent? This effect would be similar or worse with many standard immunosuppressive agents in such models. 
All the things about the histology CD3, F4/80, myelin infiltrate followed what was seen neurologically and then the mechanism was reported to be a Th2 shift. although transforming growth factor (TGF) was reported to be the mechanism of disease control. Following the transfer the cells could not be found and so they have no stem cell capapbilities to transform into nerve cells, oligodendrocytes, because they are of human origin they were probably rejected by the mouse immune system, within a few (maybe 4-6 days). A few years ago we could get similar results with mouse fibroblasts that produced TGF. However this approach could be taylor made for a fad treatment, as a few years ago umbilllcal cord stem cells were peddled as a cure for MS.

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1 comment

  • Anonymous said…

    Getting cord blood from the placenta is important because, on average, the volume of stem cells available from the umbilical cord blood alone is simply not enough to treat an adult patient, or any patient who weighs more than 65 pounds. A larger volume of stem cells can also be a life-saving resource for children (or any patient under approximately 65 pounds) because it enables doctors to provide more than one treatment, treat more than one patient, or treat a relapse in a single patient.

    This is why Americord developed CordAdvantage, available later this year, to harvest stem cells from the placenta in addition to the umbilical cord blood. This new technique, which is only available through Americord, may be able to preserve many times more stem cells than can be saved in traditional umbilical cord blood banking. Having more stem cells is directly correlated to increased survival for transplant patients.

    Additionally, it is clear from our research that the placenta contains extremely valuable stem cells that have the ability to differentiate not only into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, but into many other types of tissue. In other words, they have the benefits of embryonic stem cells but without the controversy or medical drawbacks.

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