Present research aimed at investigation of the role of several inflammatory cytokines and free toxic radicals
in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) course and disability progression as well as
factors that can assist to the early transition of Relapse Remitting MS
(RRMS) in Secondary Progressive MS (SPMS).
22 MS patients, 14 RRMS and 8 SMPS have been investigated. Age at
disease onset, disease duration, number of relapses and the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were collected. Control comprised 10 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. Brain was visualized by Magnetic Resonance Tomography. Blood pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected by Enzyme Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood free toxic radicals and antioxidant (SOD, CR, GT) enzymes were detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Method (EPR).
Blood pro- and anti-inflammatory factors (γ-Interferon, IL-6, IL-10)
were elevated in MS patients against control. Increased blood IL-6 and
IL-10 found in RRMS as compared to SPMS, while γ-interferon was higher
in SPMS (p<0.0001). Blood EPR specters of Lypoperoxiradical (LOO-)
and superoxide anion (O2-) were increased in SPMS patients compared to RRMS and control. Blood EPR specters of antioxidant enzymes: superoxidismutase (SOD. breaksdown super oxide-a radical into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen), catalase (CAT.Decomposes hydrogen peroxide-a radical, to water and oxygen) and Glutathione reductase (GR. an anti-oxidant)
found elevated in RRMS against SPMS and control. Positive correlation
was found between γ-interferon and EDSS (r=+0.52 p<0.05 (This not a strong correlation) in SPMS and negative correlation (the higher theEDSS the lower the anti-oxidant enzymnes which breaks down the oxygen radicals) established between SOD and CAT and EDSS (r=-0.84 (This is a reasonably good level of correlation) and r=-0.60 respectively, p<0.05) in RRMS. There a was a correlation between the brain MRI Injury volume and C reactive protein (a marker of inflammation), γ-interferon (a cytokine that activates macrophages) and CAT.
research suggested that the state of endogenous protection system and
blood content of anti-oxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD) in MS patients could
play a significant role for early progression of RRMS in SPMS.
There are lots of ideas that the oxidative stress response may influence whether nerves die of not/ oxidative stress is the production of damaging oxygen molecules such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (see above). These may be related to the degree of damage of nerves