More targets for remyelination

During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are generated in specific sites  and then migrate to colonize the entire CNS, where they differentiate into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by the death of these cells. The CNS reacts to demyelination and by promoting spontaneous remyelination, an effect mediated by endogenous OPCs, cells that represent approximately 5-7 % of the cells in the adult brain. Numerous factors influence oligodendrogliogenesis and oligodendrocyte differentiation, including morphogens, growth factors, chemotropic molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, and intracellular cAMP levels. 

Here, we show that during development and in early adulthood, OPCs in the mouse brain contain phosphodiesterase-7 (PDE7) that metabolizes cAMP. We investigated the effects of different PDE7 inhibitors on OPC proliferation, survival, and differentiation. While none of the PDE7 inhibitors analyzed altered OPC proliferation, they enhanced OPC survival and differentiation, processes in which ERK intracellular signalling played a key role. PDE7 expression was also observed in OPCs isolated from adult human brains and the differentiation of these OPCs into more mature oligodendroglial phenotypes was accelerated by treatment with PDE7 inhibitors. These findings reveal new roles for PDE7 in regulating OPC survival and differentiation during brain development and in adulthood, and they may further our understanding of myelination and facilitate the development of therapeutic remyelination strategies for the treatment of MS.

Yet another target for myelin repair. PDE7 may have anti-inflammatory effects as well as shown in other studies

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