Leone C, D Amico E, Cilia S, Nicoletti A, Di Pino L, Patti F. Cognitive impairment and “invisible symptoms” are not associated with CCSVI in MS. BMC Neurol. 2013 Jul;13(1):97. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND:We investigated the association between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and cognitive impairment (CI) inmultiple sclerosis (MS). Moreover, we evaluated the association between CCSVI and other frequent self-reported MS symptoms.
METHODS:We looked at the presence of CI in incident MS patients with CCVSI in a population-based cohort of Catania, Italy. All subjects were group-matched by age, sex, disease duration and EDSS score with MS patients without CCSVI, serving as controls. CI was assessed with the Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) and the Stroop Test (ST) and it was defined by the presence of at least three impaired tests. Fatigue and depressive symptoms were assessed with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS), respectively. Bladder and sexual symptoms were assessed with the respective items of the Italian version of Guy’s Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS). Quality of life was evaluated with Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Instrument (MSQOL-54).
RESULTS:Out of 61 MS patients enrolled in the study, 27 were CCSVI positive and 34 were CCSVI negative. Of them, 43 were women (70.5%); the mean age was 43.9 +/- 11.8 years; the mean disease duration was 159.7 +/- 113.7 months; mean EDSS was 3.0 +/- 2.6. Of them, 36 (59.0%) were classified relapsing-remitting (RR), 12 (19.7%) secondary progressive (SP), seven (11.5%) primary progressive (PP) and six (9.3%) Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS). Overall, CI was detected in 29/61 (47.5%) MS patients; particularly 13/27 (48.1%) in the CCSVI positive group and 16/34 (47.0%) in the CCSVI negative group. Presence of CCSVI was not significantly associated with the presence of CI (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.37-2.87; p-value = 0.9). Not significant differences were found between the two groups regarding the other MS symptoms investigated.
CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest a lack of association between CCSVI and CI in MS patients. Fatigue, depressive, bladder/sexual symptoms and self-reported quality of life are not associated with CCSVI.
Laukontaus SJ, Kagayama T, Lepäntalo M, Atula S, Färkkilä M, Albäck A, Inoue Y, Tienari P, Venermo M.Doppler Ultrasound Examination of Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Control Participants: Inter-observer Agreement and Association with Disease.Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013 Aug. doi:pii: S1078-5884(13)00444-9. 10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.07.003. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a major risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to assess inter-observer agreement between two ultrasound examiners and to compare findings in MS patients and control participants.
METHODS: A prospective, blinded, controlled study of MS patients diagnosed within 2 years (MS ≤ 2, n = 39), patients diagnosed more than 10 years ago (MS > 10, n = 43) and age- and sex-matched control participants (n = 40). Ultrasound examinations were performed by two independent examiners. CCSVI criteria 1, 3, 4 and 5 as proposed by Zamboni were explored: (1) reflux in the internal jugular (IJV) and vertebral veins (VV), (3) IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) ≤0.3 cm2, (4) absence of flow in IJV and VV, and (5) reverted postural control of venous outflow.
RESULTS: Criteria 1, 4 and 5 were met in less than 10% of the MS patients and control participants as studied by both examiners. The level of inter-observer agreement was poor for all parameters except assessment of the CSA of IJV at the thyroid level. Findings meeting CCSVI criterion 3 (CSA ≤ 0.3 cm2) were observed in 18/40 (45%) of the control participants, in 24/37 (65%) of MS ≤ 2 patients (p = 0.09 vs. control participants) and in 30/43 (70%) of the MS > 10 patients (p = 0.022 vs. control participants).
CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility of the CCSVI criteria for common use is questionable because of low inter-observer agreement. Small-calibre IJVs meeting the CCSVI criterion 3 appear common in both Finnish control participants and MS patients, but the clinical significance of this finding is questionable.
Lupattelli T, Bellagamba G, Righi E, Di Donna V, Flaishman I, Fazioli R, Garaci F, Onorati P.
Feasibility and safety of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Vasc Surg. 2013 Aug 12. doi:pii: S0741-5214(13)01144-0. 10.1016/j.jvs.2013.05.108. [Epub ahead of print]OBJECTIVE:Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a recently discovered syndrome mainly due to stenoses of internal jugular (IJV) and/or azygos (AZ) veins. The present study retrospectively evaluates the feasibility and safety of endovascular treatment for CCSVI in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
METHODS:From September 2010 to October 2012, 1202 consecutive patients were admitted to undergo phlebograpy ± endovascular treatment for CCSVI. All the patients had previously been found positive at color Doppler sonography (CDS) for at least two Zamboni criteria for CCSVI and had a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of MS. Only symptomatic MS were considered for treatment. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was carried out as an outpatient procedure at two different institutes. Primary procedures, regarded as the first balloon angioplasty ever performed for CCSVI, and secondary (reintervention) procedures, regarded as interventions performed after venous disease recurrence, were carried out in 86.5% (1037 of 1199) and 13.5% (162 of 1199) of patients, respectively. Procedural success and complications within 30 days were recorded.
RESULTS:Phlebography followed by endovascular recanalization was carried out in 1999 patients consisting of 1219 interventions. Balloon angioplasty alone was performed in 1205 out of 1219 (98.9%) procedures, whereas additional stent placement was required in the remaining 14 procedures (1.1%) following unsuccessful attempts at AZ dilatation. No stents were ever implanted in the IJV. The feasibility rate was as high as 99.2% (1209 interventions). Major complications included one (0.1%) AZ rupture occurring during balloon dilatation and requiring blood transfusion, one (0.1%) severe bleeding in the groin requiring open surgery, two (0.2%) surgical openings of the common femoral vein to remove balloon fragments, and three (0.2%) left IJV thromboses. The overall major and minor complication rates at 30 days were 0.6% and 2.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment for CCSVI appears feasible and safe. However, a proper learning curve can dramatically lower the rate of adverse events. In our experience, the vast majority of complications occurred in the first 400 cases performed.
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Karmon Y, Zivadinov R, Weinstock-Guttman B, Marr K, Valnarov V, Dolic K, Kennedy CL, Hojnacki D, Carl EM, Hagemeier J, Hopkins LN, Levy EI, Siddiqui AH. Comparison of Intravascular Ultrasound with Conventional Venography for Detection of Extracranial Venous Abnormalities Indicative of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency.J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2013 Aug 13. doi:pii: S1051-0443(13)01106-8. 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.06.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Rodger IW, Dilar D, Dwyer J, Bienenstock J, Coret A, Coret-Simon J, Foster G, Franchetto A, Franic S, Goldsmith CH, Koff D, Konyer NB, Levine M, McDonald E, Noseworthy MD, Paulseth J, Ribeiro L, Sayles MJ, Thabane L. Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 14;8(8):e72495. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072495.