Macrophages do alot

M
Goldmann T, Prinz M. Role of microglia in CNS autoimmunity. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:208093

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Western world. The disease is characterized histologically by the infiltration of encephalitogenic TH1/TH17-polarized CD4(+) T cells, B cells, and a plethora of myeloid cells, resulting in severe demyelination ultimately leading to a degeneration of neuronal structures. These pathological processes are substantially modulated by microglia, the resident immune competent cells of the CNS. In this overview, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the highly diverse and complex function of microglia during CNS autoimmunity in either promoting tissue injury or tissue repair. Hence, understanding microglia involvement in MS offers new exciting paths for therapeutic intervention.




The central nervous system (CNS) is immune privileged with access to leucocytes being limited. In several neurological diseases, however, infiltration of immune cells from the periphery into the CNS is largely observed and accounts for the increased representation of macrophages within the CNS. In addition to extensive leukocyte infiltration, the activation of microglia is frequently observed. The functions of activated macrophages/microglia within the CNS are complex. In three animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), namely, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and cuprizone- and lysolecithin-induced demyelination, there have been many reported detrimental roles associated with the involvement of macrophages and microglia. Such detriments include toxicity to neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, release of proteases, release of inflammatory cytokines and free radicals, and recruitment and reactivation of T lymphocytes in the CNS. Many studies, however, have also reported beneficial roles of macrophages/microglia, including axon regenerative roles, assistance in promoting remyelination, clearance of inhibitory myelin debris, and the release of neurotrophic factors. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the detrimental and beneficial aspects of macrophages/microglia in models of MS, provide a discussion of the mechanisms underlying the dichotomous roles, and describe a few therapies in clinical use in MS that impinge on the activity of macrophages/microglia.
Macrophages do a lot these articles are opens ource

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