Remyelination by stem cells

#MSResearch Viewing #Stem cells remyelinate

Greenberg ML, Weinger JG, Matheu MP, Carbajal KS, Parker I, Macklin WB, Lane TE, Cahalan MD. Two-photon imaging of remyelination of spinal cord axons by engrafted neural precursor cells in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 19. pii: 201406658. [Epub ahead of print]

Neural precursor cells (NPCs) offer a promising approach for treating demyelinating diseases. However, the cellular dynamics that underlie transplanted NPC-mediated remyelination have not been described. Using two-photon imaging of a newly developed ventral spinal cord preparation and a viral model of demyelination, we describe the motility and intercellular interactions of transplanted mouse NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with damaged axons expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Our findings reveal focal axonal degeneration that occurs in the ventral side of the spinal cord within 1 wk following intracranial instillation with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV). Axonal damage precedes extensive demyelination (So the nerve damage is first and demyelination is second. In MS we think it is the other way round or do we because this does not happen in mice can we rewrite history so it fits) and is characterized by swelling along the length of the axon, loss of YFP signal, and transected appearance. NPCs engrafted into spinal cords of JHMV-infected mice exhibited diminished migration velocities (slow speed of movement) and increased proliferation compared with transplanted cells in noniinfected mice. NPCs preferentially accumulated within areas of axonal damage, initiated direct contact with axons, and subsequently expressed the myelin proteolipid protein gene, initiating remyelination. These findings indicate that NPCs transplanted into an inflammatory demyelinating microenvironment participate directly in therapeutic outcome through the wrapping of myelin around damaged neurons.

We have recently heard how neural stem cells help crippled mice to walk (click here), now we see that they can remyelinate

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  • Mr Mouse it's early, but are you saying you've assumed that demylination happens first to axon damage on the mice you work on ?

    Regards as always.

    • Historically we have viewed that the problem is loss of myelin leading to nerve damage.However,some are saying that nerve damage precedes myelin loss. In mice nerve loss is so much more apparent than demyelination. So you either say your model lacks valdity. An alternative way is to change how people think.

  • This is so exciting to think that we are closer to understand why it happens and hopefully stop it from happening at the source

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