1) When to refer to a consultant neurologist
Refer people suspected of having MS to a consultant neurologist. Speak to the consultant neurologist if you think a person needs to be seen urgently. If a person has an episode of isolated optic neuritis, confirmed by an ophthalmologist, refer them to a consultant neurologist for further assessment.
Before referring a person suspected of having MS to a neurologist, exclude alternative diagnoses by performing blood tests including:
full blood count, inflammatory markers for example erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, liver function tests, renal function tests, calcium, glucose, thyroid function tests, vitamin B12, HIV serology.
3) Information at the time of diagnosis
The consultant neurologist should ensure that people with MS and, with their agreement their family members or carers, are offered oral and written information at the time of diagnosis. This should include, but not be limited to, information about: what MS is
treatments, including disease-modifying therapies symptom management, how support groups, local services, social services and national charities are organised and how to get in touch with them, legal requirements such as notifying the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and legal rights including social care, employment rights and benefits.
Ensure people with MS and their family members or carers have a management plan that includes who to contact if their symptoms change significantly. Explain to people with MS that the possible causes of symptom changes include: another illness such as an infection, further relapse, change of disease status (for example progression).
Vaccinations: Be aware that live vaccinations may be contraindicated in people with MS who are being treated with disease-modifying therapies. Discuss with the person with MS:
the possible benefits of flu vaccination and the possible risk of relapse after flu vaccination if they have relapsing–remitting MS.
Pregnancy: Explain to women of childbearing age with MS that:
relapse rates may reduce during pregnancy and may increase 3–6 months after childbirth before returning to pre-pregnancy rates
pregnancy does not increase the risk of progression of disease.
If a person with MS is thinking about pregnancy, give them the opportunity to talk with a healthcare professional with knowledge of MS about: fertility, the risk of the child developing MS
use of vitamin D before conception and during pregnancy
medication use in pregnancy, pain relief during delivery (including epidurals), care of the child, breastfeeding.
5) Lifestyle advice
Exercise: Encourage people with MS to exercise. Advise them that regular exercise may have beneficial effects on their MS and does not have any harmful effects on their MS. For mobility problems and fatigue related to MS, consider supervised exercise programmes involving moderate progressive resistance training and aerobic exercise.
Smoking: Advise people with MS not to smoke and explain that it may increase the progression of disability.
6) Disease-modifying therapies
Beta interferon and glatiramer acetate
On the balance of their clinical and cost effectiveness neither beta interferon or glatiramer acetate is recommended for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the NHS in England and Wales.
Dimethyl fumarate is recommended as an option for treating adults with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (normally defined as 2 clinically significant relapses in the previous 2 years), only if:
they do not have highly active or rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and the manufacturer provides dimethyl fumarate with the discount agreed in the patient access scheme.
Alemtuzumab is recommended as an option, within its marketing authorisation, for treating adults with active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis.
Teriflunomide is recommended as an option for treating adults with active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (normally defined as 2 clinically significant relapses in the previous 2 years), only if they do not have highly active or rapidly evolving severe relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis and the manufacturer provides teriflunomide with the discount agreed in the patient access scheme.
Fingolimod is recommended as an option for the treatment of highly active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis in adults, only if: they have an unchanged or increased relapse rate or ongoing severe relapses compared with the previous year despite treatment with beta interferon, and the manufacturer provides fingolimod with the discount agreed as part of the patient access scheme.
Cognition including memory
Be aware that the symptoms of MS can include cognitive problems, including memory problems that the person may not immediately recognise or associate with their MS. Be aware that anxiety, depression, difficulty in sleeping and fatigue can impact on cognitive problems. If a person with MS experiences these symptoms and has problems with memory and cognition, offer them an assessment and treatment.
Mobility and fatigue
Consider supervised exercise programmes involving moderate progressive resistance training and aerobic exercise to treat people with MS who have mobility problems and/or fatigue.
Mobility and/or fatigue with balance problems:
Consider vestibular rehabilitation for people with MS who have fatigue or mobility problems associated with limited standing balance.
Treatment programmes for mobility and/or fatigue:
Encourage people with MS to keep exercising after treatment programmes end for longer term benefits (see the NICE pathway on behaviour change).
Help the person with MS continue to exercise, for example by referring them to exercise referral schemes.
If more than one of the interventions recommended for mobility or fatigue are suitable, offer treatment based on which the person prefers and whether they can continue the activity after the treatment programme ends.
Ensure people with MS and mobility problems have access to an assessment to establish individual goals and discuss ways in which to achieve them. This would usually involve rehabilitation specialists and physiotherapists with expertise in MS.
Do not use fampridine to treat lack of mobility in people with MS because it is not a cost effective treatment.
Assess and offer treatment to people with MS who have fatigue for anxiety, depression, difficulty in sleeping, and any potential medical problems such as anaemia or thyroid disease. For more information see the NICE pathways on generalised anxiety disorder and depression.
Explain that MS-related fatigue may be precipitated by heat, overexertion and stress or may be related to the time of day.
Offer amantadine to treat fatigue in people with MS.
Consider mindfulness-based training, cognitive behavioural therapy or fatigue management for treating MS-related fatigue.
Advise people that aerobic, balance and stretching exercises including yoga may be helpful in treating MS-related fatigue.
Do not use vitamin B12 injections to treat fatigue in people with MS.
Consider a comprehensive programme of aerobic and moderate progressive resistance activity combined with cognitive behavioural techniques for fatigue in people with MS with moderately impaired mobility (an EDSS score of greater than or equal to 4).
In people with MS assess and offer treatment for factors that may aggravate spasticity such as constipation, urinary tract or other infections, inappropriately fitted mobility aids, pressure ulcers, posture and pain.
Encourage people with MS to manage their own spasticity symptoms by explaining how doses of drugs can be adjusted within agreed limits.
Ensure that the person with MS:
has tried the drug at an optimal dose, or the maximum dose they can tolerate stops the drug if there is no benefit at the maximum tolerated dose has their drug treatment reviewed at least annually once the optimal dose has been reached.
Consider baclofen or gabapentin as a first-line drug to treat spasticity in MS depending on contraindications and the person’s comorbidities and preferences. If the person with MS cannot tolerate one of these drugs consider switching to the other.
Consider a combination of baclofen and gabapentin for people with MS if: individual drugs do not provide adequate relief or
side effects from individual drugs prevent the dose being increased.
Consider tizanidine or dantrolene as a second-line option to treat spasticity in people with MS.
Consider benzodiazepines as a third-line option to treat spasticity in MS and be aware of their potential benefit in treating nocturnal spasms.
Do not offer Sativex to treat spasticity in people with MS because it is not a cost effective treatment.
If spasticity cannot be managed with any of the above pharmacological treatments, refer the person to specialist spasticity services.
8) Treatments that should not be used
Do not offer vitamin D solely for the purpose of treating MS.
Omega fatty acids compounds
Do not offer omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid compounds to treat MS. Explain that there is no evidence that they affect relapse frequency or progression of MS.
Interventional procedure for use only in the context of research
NICE has published guidance on percutaneous venoplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency for multiple sclerosis (NICE interventional procedure guidance 420), which should be used only in the context of research.