Education: Naming drugs

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You were asking who comes up with the drug names and what do they mean? 


A pharmaceutical company could come up with the name itself or they can spend a lot of money doing market research and they pay marketing companies (I have seen written $100,000-$700,000) to come up with names, as it is how they do marketing. 


Would you want to take a a drug called Shitola? 


I have no idea how they come up with the likes of extavia (sounds like a sugar substitute), tecfidera, lemtrada, tysabri etc. They are registered trade names and may be different in Europe verses USA.


I have some idea of the way the generic names are derived as I need to do it for our new drug VSN16. This was the sixteenth drug made by Cristina Visintin. We have another JW47 which was the forty seventh drug made by Justin Warne who are post-doc Chemists who work with us. 


I quite liked Qmuclofen to reflect its heritage QM & UCL but apparently it sounds too much like baclofen, which is cheap..apparently not good.


We need to come up with a generic name for the drug and there are rules to this. They are often picked to be difficult to say which makes it easy to forget when the trade name arrives. 


In early pre-clinical trials drugs are known by their code names 
e.g. FTY720. 


Then in phase II aand III they may be known by the name of the non-proprietary generic name in this case fingolimod


Then they get a trade name after registration in this case Gilenya



So if we look at the generic names they can tell us what the drug does or what is the target of the drug and this can be found by the STEM (typically the ending).


So fingolIMOD…..This means it is an Immune modulator another of an -IMOD drugs is laquinIMOD.


Ibudilast has the stem -AST..which is an anti-asthma drug it is also a PDE4 inhibitor some of which end in -RAM


These are registered with the Word Health Organisation and this costs $12000 and these are the generic names


The table has columns for the Generic Name Stem, a Stem Definition, and an Example. Each stem has hyphens at one or both ends of its text to show that it is found at the beginning, end, or in the middle of a generic name.

For example, the stem “-azepam” would be found at the end of a generic name, corresponds to the definition “Antianxiety agents (diazepam type)”, and Lorazepam as an example drug.

The stems calci- or -calci- are found at the beginning or middle of “Vitamin D analogues” such as calcipotriene and tacalcitol.

Stem Definition Examples
-abine (see -arabine, -citabine) decitabine
-ac Anti-inflammatory agents (acetic acid derivatives) bromfenac; dexpemedolac
-acetam See -racetam
-actide Synthetic corticotropins seractide
-adol or -aldol- Analgesics (mixed opiate receptor agonists/ antagonists) tazadolene; spiradolene; levonantradol
-adox Antibacterials (quinoline dioxide derivatives) carbadox
-afenone Antiarrhythmics (propafenone derivatives) alprafenone; diprafenone
-afil PDE5 inhibitors tadalafil
-aj- Antiarrhythmics (ajmaline derivatives) lorajmine
-aldrate Antacid aluminum salts magaldrate
-algron Alpha1 – and alpha2 – adrenoreceptor agonists dabuzalgron
-alol Combined alpha and beta blockers labetalol; medroxalol
-amivir (see -vir)
-ampa Ionotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors)
subgroups:
-ampanel Ionotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors); antagonists becampanel
-ampator Ionotropic non-NMDA glutamate receptors (AMPA and/or KA receptors); modulators forampator
-andr- Androgens nandrolone
-anib Angiogenesis inhibitors semaxanib
-anserin Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonists altanserin; tropanserin; adatanserin
-antel Anthelmintics (undefined group) carbantel
-antrone Antineoplastics; anthraquinone derivatives pixantrone
-apsel P-selectin antagonists torapsel
-arabine Antineoplastics (arabinofuranosyl derivatives) fazarabine; fludarabine
aril-, -aril, -aril- Antiviral (arildone derivatives) pleconaril; arildone; fosarilate
-arit Antirheumatics (lobenzarit type) lobenzarit; clobuzarit
-arol Anticoagulants (dicumarol type) dicumarol
-arone Antiarrhythmics amiodarone; dronedarone
-arot- Arotinoids etarotene; sumarotene; tazarotene
subgroup:
-arotene Arotinoid derivatives bexarotene; linarotene; tazarotene
arte- Antimalarials (artemisin derivatives) arteflene
-ase Enzymes alglucerase; dornase alfa
subgroups:
-dismase Enzymes; superoxide dismutase activity (exception: orgotein) sudismase
-teplase Enzymes; tissue-type plasminogen activators alteplase; duteplase; silteplase
-uplase Enzymes; urokinase-type plasminogen activators saruplase; nasaruplase
-ast Antiasthmatics/antiallergics (not acting primarily as antihistamines; leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors)
subgroups:
-lukast Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; leukotriene receptor antagonists cinalukast; pobilukast
-milast Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitors piclamilast
-trodast Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists seratrodast
-zolast Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; benzoxazole derivatives eclazolast; ontazolast
-tegr- Antiasthmatics/antiallergics; integrin antagonists valategrast
-astine Antihistaminics (histamine-H1 receptor antagonists) ebastine
-(a)tadine Tricyclic histaminic-H1 receptor antagonists, loratadine derivatives desloratadine; rupatadine; somantadine
-atadine Tricyclic antiasthmatics olopatadine; loratadine
-axine Antianxiety, antidepressant inhibitor of norepinephrine and dopamine re-uptake
subgroup:
-(f)axine radafaxine
-azenil Benzodiazepine receptor agonists/antagonists bretazenil; flumazenil
-azepam Antianxiety agents (diazepam type) lorazepam
-azepide Cholecystokinin receptor antagonists devazepide
-azocine Narcotic antagonists/agonists (6,7-benzomorphan derivatives) quadazocine; ketazocine
-azoline Antihistamines/local vasoconstrictors (antazoline type) antazoline
-azosin Antihypertensives (prazosin type) doxazosin
-bactam Beta-lactamase inhibitors sulbactam
-bamate Tranquilizers/antiepileptics (propanediol and pentanediol groups) meprobamate; felbamate
-barb or -barb Barbituric acid derivatives phenobarbital; secobarbital; eterobarb
-begron Beta 3 adrenoreceptor agonist talibegron
-bendazole Anthelmintics (tibendazole type) cambendazole
-berel Beta estrogen receptor agonist prinaberel
-bersat Anticonvulsants; antimigraine (benzoylamino-benzpyran derivatives) carabersat; tidembersat
bol- or -bol- Anabolic steroids bolandiol; mibolerone
-bufen Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, fenbufen derivatives indobufen
-bulin Antineoplastics (mitotic inhibitors; tubulin binders) mivobulin
-butan Antiseptics (dapabutan type) dapabutan; lopobutan
-butazone Anti-inflammatory analgesics (phenylbutazone type) mofebutazone
-caine Local anesthetics dibucaine
calci- or -calci- Vitamin D analogues calcipotriene; tacalcitol
-camra Antivirals (intracellular adhesion molecules, icam-1 derivatives) tremacamra
-camsule Camphorsulfonic acid derivatives used as UVA sunscreens ecamsule
-casan Caspase (interleukin –1b) converting enzyme inhibitors pralnacasan
-caserin Serotonin receptor agonists, primarily 5-HT2 lorcaserin; vabicaserin
-castat (see -stat)
-carbef Antibiotics (carbacephem derivatives) loracarbef
-catib Cathespin inhibitors balicatib
-cavir (see -vir)
cef- Cephalosporins cefazolin
-cept Receptor molecules, native or modified ( a preceding infix should designate the target) alvircept
subgroups:
-co- Receptor molecules, native or modified;complement receptors mirococept
-facept Receptor molecules, native or modified;lymphocyte function-associated with antigen 3 (LFA) receptor alefacept
-farcept Receptor molecules, native or modified; interferon receptors pifarcept
-lefacept Receptor molecules, native or modified; lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 alefacept
-nercept Receptor molecules, native or modified; tumor necrosis factor receptors lenercept
-vircept Receptor molecules, native or modified; antiviral receptors alvircept
-cet Receptors (small molecule)
subgroup:
-calcet Receptors (small molecule); calcium tecalcet
-cetrapib Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors torcetrapib
-cic Hepatoprotectives (timonacic type) limazocic
-ciclib Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors seliciclib
-ciclovir (see -vir)
-cidib Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor alvocidib
-cidin Natural antibiotics (undefined group) gramicidin
-ciguat Guanaline cyclase activator ataciguat; atriciguat
-cillin Penicillins ampicillin
-citabine Nucleoside antiviral or antineoplastic agents, cytarabine or azarabine derivatives gemcitabine; fiacitabine; zalcitabine
-clidine Muscarinic agonists (various indications) vedaclidine; talsaclidine
-clone Hypnotics/tranquilizers (zopiclone type) pagoclone
-cog Blood coagulation factors
subgroups:
-eptacog Blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor VII eptacog alfa (activated)
-nonacog Blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor IX nonacog alfa
-octocog Blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation factor VIII moroctocog alfa; octocog alfa
-cogin Blood coagulation cascade inhibitor tifacogin
-conazole Systemic antifungals (miconazole type) fluconazole; oxiconazole
-cort- Cortisone derivatives hydrocortisone
-coxib Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors celecoxib; parecoxib; valdecoxib
-cridar (see -dar)
-crinat Diuretics (ethacrynic acid derivatives) brocrinat
-crine Acridine derivatives amsacrine; quinacrine
-cromil Antiallergics (cromoglicic acid derivatives) nedocromil
-curium (also -curonium) Neuromuscular blocking agents (quaternary ammonium compounds) atracurium; alcuronium; pipecuronium
-cycline Antibiotics (tetracycline derivatives) minocycline
-dan Positive inotropic agents (pimobendan type) prinoxodan; indolidan
-dapsone Antimycobacterials (diaminodiphenylsulfone derivatives) acedapsone
-dar Multidrug resistance inhibitors
subgroups:
-cridar Multidrug resistance inhibitors;acridine carboxamide derivatives elacridar
-icodar Multidrug resistance inhibitors;pipecolic acid derivatives biricodar
-quidar Multidrug resistance inhibitors; quinoline derivatives lamiquidar; zozuquidar
-spodar Multidrug resistance inhibitors; ciclosporin D derivatives valspodar
-denoson Adenosine A receptor agonists tecadenoson; binodenoson
-dermin (see -ermin)
dil-, -dil- or -dil Vasodilators (undefined group) fostedil
-dipine Phenylpyridine vasodilators (nifedipine type) darodipine; felodipine
-dismase (see -ase)
-distim (see -stim)
-ditan Antimigraine (5-HT1 receptor agonists) alniditan
-dopa Dopamine receptor agonists levodopa
-dore Dopamine D2D3 receptor modulators aplindore fumarate
-dotin Synthetic analogs of the dolastatin series tasidotin HCl
-dralazine Antihypertensives (hydrazine-phthalazines) hydralazine; endralazine
-dronate Calcium metabolism regulators etidronate; tiludronate
-dutant (see -tant)
-ectedin Ecteinascodin derivatives monectedin
-ectin Antiparasitics (ivermectin type) doramectin; moxidectin
-elestat (see -stat)
-elvakin (see -kin)
-emcinal Erythromycin derivatives lacking antibiotic activity mitemcinal
-entan Endothelin receptor antagonists bosentan
-eptacog (see -cog)
-eptakin (see -kin)
-erg- Ergot alkaloid derivatives pergolide
-eridine Analgesics (meperidine type) anileridine
-ermin Growth factors
subgroups:
-bermin Growth factors; vascular endothelial growth factors telbermin
-dermin Growth factors; epidermal growth factors murodermin
-fermin Growth factors; fibroblast growth factors ersofermin
-nermin Growth factors; tumor necrosis factors sonermin; tasonermin
-plermin Growth factors; platelet derived growth factors becaplermin
-sermin Growth factors; insulin-like growth factors mecasermin
-termin Growth factors; transforming growth factors cetermin
sub subgroups:
-otermin Growth factors; bone morphogenetic proteins dibotermin alfa
estr- or -estr- Estrogens estrone; fenestrel
subgroups:
-estrant Estrogen antagonists fulvestrant
-etanide Diuretics (piretanide type) bumetanide
-exakin (see -kin)
-ezolid Oxazolidinone antibacterials eperezolid; linezolid
-farnib Farnesyl transferase inhibitor tipifarnib
-fenamate “fenamic acid” ester or salt derivatives etofenamate
-fenamic acid Anti-inflammatory agents (anthranilic acid derivatives) flufenamic acid
-fenin Diagnostic aids ((phenylcarbamoyl)methyl iminodiacetic acid derivatives) arclofenin
-fenine Analgesics (fenamic acid subgroup) floctafenine
-fentanil Narcotic analgesics (fentanyl derivatives) alfentanil; mirfentanil; brifentanil
-fentrine Phosphodiesterase inhibitor pumafentrine
-fermin (see -ermin)
-fetamin(e) Amfetamine derivatives levmetamfetamine
-fiban Fibrinogen receptor antagonists (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists) lamifiban; tirofiban
-fibatide (see -tide)
-fibrate Antihyperlipidemics (clofibrate type) bezafibrate
-filcon Hydrophilic contact lens materials alphafilcon A; xylofilcon A; mipafilcon A
-fingol Sphingosine derivatives cedefingol; safingol
-flapon 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitors quiflapon
-flurane General inhalation anesthetics (halogenated alkane derivatives) enflurane
-fo- Phosphoro-derivatives adefovir
-focon Hydrophobic contact lens materials trifocon A; pasifocon B; satafoconA
-formin Hypoglycemics (phenformin type) buformin
-fradil Calcium channel blockers acting as vasodilators mibefradil
-fulven Antineoplastic, acylfulven derivatives viridofulven
-fungin Antifungal antibiotics (undefined group) kalafungin
-fylline Theophylline derivatives enprofylline; bamifylline; cipamfylline
-gab- Gabamimetics fengabine
gado- Gadolinium derivatives (principally for diagnostic use) gadodiamide; gadoteridol;gadobenate
-gapil Neuronal apoptosis inhibitors; GAPDH omigapil
-ganan Antimicrobial, bactericidal permeability increasing polypeptide iseganan; pexiganan
-gatran Thrombin inhibitors (argatroban type) efegatran
-gest- Progestins megestrol
-giline MAO inhibitors, type B selegiline
-gillin Antibiotics (Aspergillus strains) mitogillin
gli- Antihyperglycemics gliflumide
-gliptin Antihyperglycemics; dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-IV inhibitors vildagliptin
-glitazar Antihyperglycemics; PPAR agonists (not thiazolidene derivatives) farglitizar
-glitazone Antihyperglycemics; PPST agonists (thiazolidene derivatives) ciglitazone; rosiglitazone
-glumide CCK antagonists, antiulcer, anxiolytic agent amiglumide; itriglumide
-golix GnRH receptor antagonists (nonpeptide) rupugolix
-gosivir (see -vir)
-gramostim (see -stim)
-grastim (see -stim)
-grel- or -grel Platelet aggregation inhibitors (undefined group) itazigrel; dimetagrel; furegrelate
guan- Antihypertensives (guanidine derivatives) guanoctine
-ibat Ileal bile acid transport inhibitor barixibat
-icam Anti-inflammatory agents (isoxicam type) enolicam; tenoxicam
-icodar (see -dar)
-ifen(e) Antiestrogens of the clomifene and tamoxifen groups nitromifene; raloxifene; droloxifene
-ilide Class III antiarrhythmic agents ibutilide; risotilide; dofetilide
-imepodib Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors merimepodib
-imex Immunostimulants forfenimex; roquinimex; ubenimex
-imibe- Antihyperlipidaemics, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors eldacimibe; avasimibe; pactimibe
-imod Immunomodulators ivarimod; pidotimod
subgroup:
-mapimod Immunomodulators; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors dormapimod
-imus Immunosuppressives tacrolimus; napirimus; gusperimus; sirolimus
io- Iodine-containing contrast media iodamide
-irudin Anticoagulants (hirudin type) desirudin
-isant Histamine H3 receptor antagonists cipralisant
-isomide Antiarrhythmics (disopyramide derivatives) bidisomide
-ium (also -onium) Quaternary ammonium derivatives clidinium; disiquonium; polixetonium
-ixafor CXCR4 antagonists plerixifor
-kacin Antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces kanamyceticus (related to kanamycin) amikacin
-kalant Potassium channel antagonists almokalant; terikalant
-kalim Potassium channel agonists cromakalim; aprikalim
-kalner Opener of large conductance calcium-activated (maxi-k) K+ channels flindokalner
-kef- Enkephalin agonists (various indications) metkephamide; casokefamide
-kin Interleukin type substances
subgroups:
-decakin Interleukin type substances; interleukin-10 analogues and derivatives ilodecakin
-dodekin Interleukin type substances; interleukin-12 analogues and derivatives edodekin alfa
-elvekin Interleukin type substances; interleukin 11 analogues and derivatives oprelvekin
-eptakin Interleukin type substances; interleukin 7 analogues and derivatives
-exakin Interleukin type substances; interleukin 6 analogues and derivatives atexakin alfa
-leukin Interleukin type substances; interleukin 2 analogues and derivatives teceleukin; aldesleukin
-nakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives
sub subgroups:
-onakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; interleukin 1-a analogues and derivatives pitonakin
-benakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 1-b analogues and derivatives mobenakin
-nonakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 9 analogues and derivatives
-octakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 8 analogues and derivatives emoctakin
-penkin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 5 analogues and derivatives
-trakin Interleukin 1 analogues and derivatives; iinterleukin 4 analogues and derivatives binetrakin
-kinra Interleukin receptor antagonists
subgroup:
-nakinra Interleukin receptor antagonists; interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonists anakinra
-kiren Renin inhibitors ditekiren; terlakiren; zankiren
-lazad Lipid peroxidation inhibitors tirilazad
-leptin Leptin derivatives metreleptin
-leukin (see -kin)
-lind Pro-apoptotic cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors ractalind; dractalind
subgroup:
-sulind Pro-apoptotic cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors; antineoplastics, sulindac metabolites exisulind
-lipim Lipoprotein lipase activators ibrolipim
-locib Antineoplastics that inhibit the formation of 5-LO, LTB4, LTC4, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2); and Activate PPARg nuclear receptors etalocib
-lubant Leukotriene receptor antagonists (treatment of inflammatory skin disorders) ticolubant
-lukast (see -ast)
-lutamide Antiandrogens bicalutamide; flutamide
-lutril Neutral endopeptidase inhibitors possessing additional endothelin converting enzyme inhibitory activity daglutril
-mab Monoclonal antibodies imciromab; abciximab; capromab; dacliximab; detumomab; enlimomab
subgroups:
-axo- Monoclonal antibodies; rat-murine hybrid antibodies
-les- Monoclonal antibodies; infix for inflammatory/infectious lesions
-toxa- Monoclonal antibodies; toxin as a target urtoxazumab
-mantadine or -mantine Antivirals/antiparkinsonians (adamantane derivatives) rimantadine; dopamantine
-mastat (see -stat)
-meline Cholinergic agonists (arecoline derivatives used in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease) xanomeline
-melteon Selective melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon
-mer Polymers cadexomer; carbetimer
-mesine Sigma receptor ligands igmesine; panamesine
-mestane Antineoplastics (aromatase inhibitors) plomestane
-metacin Anti-inflammatory agents (indomethacin type) zidometacin
-micin Antibiotics (Micromonospora strains) maduramicin; gentamicin
-monam Monobactam antibiotics gloximonam; oximonam; tigemonam
-morelin (see -relin)
-moren Non-peptidic growth hormone secretagogues ibutamoren
-mostim (see -stim)
-motine Antivirals (quinoline derivatives) famotine
-moxin Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hydrazine derivatives) benmoxin; domoxin
-mulin Antibacterials, pleuromulin derivatives retapamulin
-multin Mucosal tolerance inductors ismomultin
-mustine Antineoplastics (chloroethylamine derivatives) carmustine
-mycin Antibiotics (Streptomyces strains) lincomycin
nab- or -nab- Cannabinol derivatives nabazenil; dronabinol
-nakalant Mixed sodium/potassium channel blockers vernakalant
-nakin (see -kin)
nal- Narcotic agonists/antagonists (normorphine type) nalmefene
-navir (see -vir)
-nercept (see -cept)
-nermin (see -ermin)
-nertant Neurotensin receptor antagonists reminertant
-nesib Kinesin inhibitors ispinesib
-netant (see -tant)
-neurin Neurotensin receptor antagonists; neurotropins abrineurin
-nicline Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists/agonists nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (tenidap altinicline
-nidap Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (tenidap type) ilonidap; tenidap
-nidazole Antiprotozoal substances (metronidazole type) tinidazole
nifur- 5-nitrofuran derivatives nifuratel; nifuratrone
-nil Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists/agonists
subgroups:
-punil Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (MBR) selective, partial, or inverse agonists (purine derivatives) emapunil
-quinil Benzodiazepine receptor agonists, also partial or inverse (quinoline derivatives) lirequinil
-nixin Anti-inflammatory agents (anilinonicotinic acid derivatives) clonixin
-nonacog (see -cog)
-nonakin (see -kin)
-octacog (see -cog)
-octakin (see -kin)
-olol Beta-blockers (propranolol type) timolol; atenolol
-olone Steroids (not prednisolone derivatives) minaxolone
-onide Topical steroids (acetal derivatives) amcinonide
-opilone Epothilone filopilone
-orex Anorexiants fludorex
-orphan Narcotic antagonists/agonists dextro-(morphinan derivatives) methorphan; dextrorphan
-osuran Urotensin receptor antagonists palosuran
-otilate Hepatoprotectants, di-isopropyl-1,3-dithiol- malonate derivatives mivotilate
-oxacin Antibacterials (quinolone derivatives) difloxacin; ciprofloxacin
-oxan Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (benzodioxane derivatives) imiloxan
-oxanide Antiparasitics (salicylanilide derivatives) bromoxanide
-oxef Antibiotics (oxacefalosporanic acid derivatives) flomoxef
-oxetine Antidepressants (fluoxetine type) dapoxetine; seproxetine
-pafant Platelet-activating factor antagonists apafant; dacopafant; tulopafant; lexipafant
-pamide Diuretics (sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives) alipamide
-pamil Coronary vasodilators (verapamil type) tiapamil
-pamine Dopaminergics (butopamine type) fosopamine; ibopamine
-panel AMPA receptor antagonists fanapanel; irumpanel; talampanel
-parcil Antithrombotics beciparcil; iliparcil
-parcin Glycopeptide antibiotics avoparcin
-parin Heparin derivatives and low molecular weight (or depolymerized) heparins heparin; tinzaparin; dalteparin
-parinux Antithrombotyic indirect selective synthetic factor Xa inhibitors fondaparinux
-paroid Antithrombotics (heparinoid type) danaparoid; sulparoid
peg- PEGylated compounds pegcaristim; pegnartograstim;pegvisomant
-penem Antibacterial antibiotics (carbapenem derivatives) imipenem
-penkin (see -kin)
perflu- Blood substitutes and/or diagnostics (perfluorochemicals) perflubron; perflunafene
-peridol Antipsychotics (haloperidol type) haloperidol
-peridone Antipsychotics (risperidone type) risperidone; iloperidone; ocaperidone
-perone Antianxiety agents/neuroleptics (4′-fluoro-4-piperidinobutyrophenone derivatives) duoperone
-pezil Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease icopezil; donepezil
-pidem Hypnotics/sedatives (zolpidem type) zolpidem; alpidem
-pirdine Cognition enhancers linopirdine; besipirdine; sibopirdine
-pirox Antimycotics (pyridone derivatives) ciclopirox
-pitant (see -tant)
-plact Platelet factor 4 analogs and derivatives iroplact
-pladib Phospholipase A2 inhibitors ecopladib
-planin Antibacterials (Actinoplanes strains) mideplanin; ramoplanin; teicoplanin
-platin Antineoplastics (platinum derivatives) cisplatin
-plasninin Inhibitors of plasminogen activator inhibitors – type 1 tiplasninin
-plermin (see -ermin)
-plestim (see -stim)
-plon Non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics, sedatives, hypnotics ocinaplon; zaleplon
-poetin Erythropoietins epoetin alfa; epoetin beta
-porfin Benzoporphyrin derivatives verteporfin; temoporfin
-pramine Antidepressants (imipramine type) lofepramine
-prazan Acid pump inhibitors, not dependent on acid activation omidaprazan
-prazole Antiulcer agents (benzimidazole derivatives) omeprazole; disuprazole
subgroup:
-maprazole Antiulcer agents (benzimidazole derivatives); acid pump inhibitors pumaprazole
pred-, -pred- or -pred Prednisone and prednisolone derivatives prednicarbate; cloprednol; oxisopred
-pressin Vasoconstrictors (vasopressin derivatives) desmopressin
-pride Sulpiride derivatives remoxipride; zacopride
-pril Antihypertensives (ACE inhibitors) enalapril; temocapril; spirapril
-prilat Antihypertensives (ACE inhibitors) (diacid analogs of the -pril entity) enalaprilat; spiraprilat
-prinim Nootropic agents, purine derivatives leteprinim
-prim Antibacterials (trimethoprim type) ormetoprim
-prisnil Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRM) asoprisnil
-pristin Antibacterials, pristinamycin derivatives quinupristin; efepristin
-pristone Progesterone receptor antagonists mifepristone
-profen Anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents (ibuprofen type) flurbiprofen
-prost- or -prost Prostaglandin derivatives rioprostil; dinoprost
-protafib Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors ertiprotafib
-pultide (see -tide)
-proget Nonsteroidal ligand for the progesterone receptor tanaproget
-queside Cholesterol sequestrants (glycosides) pamaqueside
-racetam Nootropes (piracetam type) piracetam
-racil Uracil type antineoplastics eniluracil; gemeracil; oteracil
-relin Prehormones or hormone-release stimulating peptides subgroups: nafarelin
subgroups:
-morelin Growth hormone-release stimulating peptides dumorelin
-tirelin Thyrotropin releasing hormone analogues protirelin
-relix Hormone-release inhibiting peptides aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone type) detirelix
-renone Aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone type) canrenone
-restat (see -stat)
-retin- or -retin Retinol derivatives etretinate; pelretin
-rev Therapeutic virus
subgroup:
-tucirev Therapeutic virus; tumoricidal lontucirev
-ribine Ribofuranil derivatives (pyrazofurin type) loxoribine
rifa- Antibiotics (rifamycin derivatives) rifapentine; rifampin
-rinone Cardiotonics (amrinone type) milrinone
-rozole Aromatase inhibitors (imidazole/triazole derivatives) letrozole; fadrozole; vorozole
-rsen Antisense oligonucleotides alicaforsen
-rubicin Antineoplastic antibiotics (daunorubicin type) esorubicin; idarubicin
sal-, -sal- or -sal Anti-inflammatory agents (salicylic acid derivatives) mesalamine; diflunisal; balsalazide
-sartan Angiotensin II receptor antagonists losartan; eprosartan
-semide Diuretics (furosemide type) azosemide
-sermin (see -ermin)
-serod Serotonin receptor antagonists and partial agonists piboserod
-serpine Rauwolfia alkaloid derivatives reserpine
-setron Serotonin 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron; granisetron; lurosetron
-siban Oxytocin antagonists barusiban
-sidomine Antianginals (sydnone derivatives) pirsidomine; molsidomine; linsidomine
som- Growth hormone derivatives somatrem; somatropin
subgroups:
som- -bove Growth hormone derivatives; bovine somatotropin derivatives sometribove
som- -por Growth hormone derivatives; porcine somatotropin derivatives sometripor; somagrepor
-sonan 5-HT1B receptor antagonists elzasonan
-spirone Anxiolytics (buspirone type) zalospirone; tiospirone
-spodar (see -dar)
-sporin Immunosuppressants (cyclosporine type) geclesporin; oxeclosporin
-stat-, -stat Enzyme inhibitors
subgroups:
-castat Enzyme inhibitors; dopamine beta-hydrolase (DBH) inhibitors nepicastat
-elestat Enzyme inhibitors; elastase inhibitors sivelestat
-inostat Enzyme inhibitors; inhibitors of histone deacetylase dacinostat
-mastat Enzyme inhibitors; antineoplastics (matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors) batimastat
-(a)mostat Enzyme inhibitors; proteolytic enzyme inhibitors nafamostat
-restat- or -restat Aldose-reductase inhibitors ponalrestat; tolrestat
-vastatin Antihyperlipidemics (HMG-CoA inhibitors) atorvastatin; lovastatin; pravastatin
-urestat Urease inhibitor benurestat
-stat- Renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor cilastatin
-stat- Pepsin inhibitor pepstatin
-statin Renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor pepsin inhibitor cilastatin; pepstatin
-ster- Steroids (androgens, anabolics) testosterone
-steride Testosterone reductase inhibitors epristeride; fenasteride
-stigmine Cholinesterase inhibitors (physostigmine type) quilostigmine; teserstigmine
-stim Colony-stimulating factors
subgroups:
-distim Colony-stimulating factors; conjugates of two different types of colony-stimulating factors milodistim
-gramostim Colony-stimulating factors; granulocyte macrophage colony- stimulating factors (GM-CSF) molgramostim; regramostim; sargramostim; ecogramostim
-grastim Colony-stimulating factors; granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) filgrastim; lenograstim
-mostim Colony-stimulating factors; macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSF) mirimostim
-plestim Colony-stimulating factors; interleukin 3 derivatives; pleiotropic colony-stimulating factors daniplestim
-stinel NMDA receptor antagonists (glycine recognition site) licostinel
-sulam Antineoplastics, apoptosis inducing sulfonamide indisulam
sulfa- Antimicrobials (sulfonamides derivatives) sulfasalazine
-sulfan Antineoplastics, alkylating agents (methanesulfonate derivatives) busulfan
-sulind (see -lind)
-tant Tachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists
subgroups:
-dutant Tachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK2 receptor antagonists saredutant
-netant Tachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK3 receptor antagonists osanetant
-pitant Tachykinin (neurokinin) receptor antagonists; NK1 receptor antagonists dapitant; zinapitant; lanepitant
-tapide Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors implitapide
-taxel Antineoplastics, taxane derivatives paclitaxel
-tecan Antineoplastics (camptothecine derivatives) topotecan; irinotecan
-tecarin Antineoplastics (rebeccamycin derivatives) becatecarin
-tepa Antineoplastics (thiotepa derivatives) azetepa
-teplase (see -ase)
-termin (see -ermin)
-terol Bronchodilators (phenethylamine derivatives) albuterol
-tesind Thymidilate synthetase inhibitors (benzindole derivatives) metesind
-texafin Texaphryn derivatives motexafin
-thiazide Diuretics (thiazide derivatives) chlorothiazide
-tiapine Antipsychotics (dibenzothiazepine derivatives) quitiapine
-tiazem Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem type) diltiazem; clentiazem; iprotiazem
-tibant Antiasthmatics (bradykinin antagonists) icatibant
-tide Peptides and glycopeptides octreotide
subgroups:
-fibatide Peptides and glycopeptides; platelet aggregation inhibitors (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists) eptifibatide
-pultide Peptides and glycopeptides; peptides used as pulmonary surfactants sinapultide
-tidine H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine type) lupitidine; ranitidine; donetidine
-tinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitors canertinib; imatinib; mubritinib
-tirelin (see -relin)
-tirome Antihyperlidaemic, thyromimetic derivatives anitirome; axitirome
-tocin Oxytocin derivatives oxytocin
-toclax Antineoplastic, BLC-2 inhibitor obatoclax
-toin Antiepileptics (hydantoin derivatives) albutoin
-toran TLR4 receptor antagonists eritoran
-tox(a)- Toxins urtoxazumab
-traposin AP2 inhibitors seltraposin
-trexate Antimetabolites (folic acid derivatives) methotrexate
-trexed Antineoplastic thymidylate synthetase inhibitors pemetrexed; ralitrexed; nolatrexed
-tricin Antibiotics (polyene derivatives) mepartricin
-tril -trilat Endopeptidase inhibitors candoxatril; candoxatrilat
-triptan Antimigraine agents (5-HT1 receptor agonists) naratriptan; oxitriptan; sumatriptan
-triptyline Antidepressants (dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptane derivatives) amitriptyline
-troban Antithrombotics (thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists) daltroban; sulotroban
-trodast (see -ast)
-troline Antipsychotics (dopamine D2 antagonists) carvotroline; gevotroline
-trombopag Thrombopoetin agonists eltrombopag
trop- or -trop- Atropine derivatives benztropine
-uclin Mucosal tolerance inhibitors
-uplase (see -ase)
-uracil Uracil derivatives used as thyroid antagonists and as antineoplastics fluorouracil
-uridine Antivirals; antineoplastics (uridine derivatives) idoxuridine
-vaptan Vasopressin receptor antagonists conivaptan; relcovaptan
-vastatin (see -stat)
-verine Spasmolytic agents (papaverine type) mebeverine
vin- or -vin- Vinca alkaloids vinepidine; apovincamine
vir-, -vir- or -vir Antiviral substances (undefined group) ganciclovir; enviradine; viroxime; alvircept; delavirdine
subgroups:
-amivir Antiviral substances; neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir
-cavir Antiviral substances; carbocyclic nucleosides lobucavir
-cyclovir Antiviral substances; (acyclovir type) acyclovir
-ciclovir Antiviral substances; (acyclovir type) desciclovir; famciclovir; penciclovir
-gosivir Antiviral substances; glucosidase inhibitor celgosivir
-navir Antiviral substances; HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir type) droxinavir; indinavir; ritonavir
-virdine Antiviral substances; (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; pyridine derivatives) atevirdine; delevirdine
-virenz Antivirals (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; benzoxazinone derivatives) efavirenz
-virsen Antivirals (antisense) afovirsen; fomivirsen; trecovirsen
-vircept (see -cept)
-virdine (see -vir)
-virenz (see -vir)
-virimat Antiviral, disrupts viral maturation bevirimat
-viroc CCR5 antagonists maraviroc
subgroup:
-criviroc CCR5 antagonists, immunomodulators ancriviroc
-vudine Antineoplastics; antivirals (zidovudine group) (exception: edoxudine) stavudine; lamivudine; alovudine
-xaban Anticoagulant (Factor Xa inhibitor) tamixaban
-xanox Antiallergic respiratory tract drugs (xanoxic acid derivatives) tixanox
-(x)antrone Antineoplastics, mitoxantrone derivatives aza-anthracenedione class of antitumor agents pixantrone
-zolamide Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors brinzolamide; dorzolamide; sezolamide
-zolast (see -ast)
-zomib Proteozome inhibitors bortezomib
-zotan 5-HT1A receptor agonists/antagonists acting primarily as neuroprotectors robalzotan; sarizotan; ibalzotan; lecozotan



What are we going to call VSN16 either something that inhibits spasticity or something that binds to a target….but can’t tell you that yet.


Antibodies in preclinical studies are often known by the code on a 96 well plate. 

The columns are labelled 1-12 and the rows a-h. So 4F12 may be clones from the forth 96 well plate row f column 12. There is one antibody clone that was called FuJA and word on the street was that it meant f**k you JA, with JA being the initials of someone who had made an antibody against the target of FUJA, but they would not give it out so someone had to make one of their own.
I made a cell line called BCTL-1 (Big Chief Team Leader-One) MD2 made one called GP8 which was cell used to make a blood brain barrier.

If we look at anti CD20 antibobodies we have

You can see the stem mab telling you that they are monoclonal antibodies.


-xi- means chimeric so the antibody is part animal in the variable bit and the constant bit is human. (rituximab)
zu– is humanised, so the antibody is largely human and the antigen binding bits are animal (alemtuzumab, natalizumab, ocrelizumab)
u(mo)– is human. 



So there is more information such as the target tuzumab (tumor targeting antiboby), so for ocrelizumab we have ocreLI (immune system) ZU (humanised), MAB (monoclonal antibody), so would you pay someone to come up with OCRE…I guess some companies do:-)

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MouseDoctor

7 comments

  • Interesting… So it appears that fingolimod is fully based on these guidelines: the first part, fingol, stands for sphingosine derivatives, and you explained -il- and -mod already as immunomodulator. I have not seen on your list any explanation for Laquin- in laquinimod, but I bet quin there stands for a quinoline ring which the molecule contains.

  • However Siphonimod is also a sphingosine-one phosphate modulator wonder it this is related to siphoning money away.

    However you may be right the name of laquinimod is 5-chloro-N-ethyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide an so I have learned because I don't think they are striving for un-pronouncable names but simply using STENs so they pay companies to come up with LA will the next one be called TI.

  • Wow…that post was downright impressive. Bravo, MouseDoctor. Now, I just have to wonder how much time med schools and pharmacy schools give their students to memorize that list. 🙂

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