Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Matrine Treatment Blocks NogoA-Induced Neural Inhibitory Signaling Pathway in Ongoing Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Myelin-associated inhibitors, such as NogoA, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), play a pivotal role in the lack of neuroregeneration in multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Matrine (MAT), a monomer that is used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, has shown beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. However, the underlying mechanisms of MAT-induced EAE amelioration are not fully understood. In the present study, we show that MAT treatment suppressed ongoing EAE, and this effect correlated with an increased expression of growth-associated protein 43, an established marker for axonal regeneration. MAT treatment significantly reduced the levels of NogoA, its receptor complex NgR/p75NTR/LINGO-1, and their downstream RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in the CNS. In contrast, intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and its protein kinase (protein kinase A (PKA)), which can promote axonal regrowth by inactivating the RhoA, were upregulated. Importantly, adding MAT in primary astrocytes in vitro largely induced cAMP/PKA expression, and blockade of cAMP significantly diminished MAT-induced expression of PKA and production of BDNF, a potent neurotrophic factor for neuroregeneration. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the beneficial effects of MAT on EAE can be attributed not only to its capacity for immunomodulation, but also to its directly promoting regeneration of the injured CNS.
and from which Matrine (MAT) is extracted.