BACKGROUND: B lymphocytes are thought to play a relevant role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. The in vivo analysis of intrathecally produced B cell-related cytokines may help to clarify the mechanisms of B cell recruitment and immunoglobulin production within the central nervous system (CNS) in MS.
CXCL13 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. This is selectively chemotactic for B cells expressing CXCR5 receptor, which is most of them. So it will attract memory B cells into the brain. So in early MS you produce molecules that can get B cells into the brain and the more you produce the more the cells that enter the brain and this is associated with more damage to the brain seen by thinning of the cortex (outside layer of the brain). Increases in MS have been seen with this chemokine before to correlate with cell numbers an in contrast to this study…antibody levels
Johannes Brettschneider, Anne Czerwoniak, Makbule Senel, Lubin Fang, Jan Kassubek, Elmar Pinkhardt, Florian Lauda, Tamara Kapfer, Sarah Jesse, Vera Lehmensiek, Albert C. Ludolph, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani The Chemokine CXCL13 Is a Prognostic Marker in Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) PLoS One. 2010; 5(8): e11986
Krumbholz M, Theil D, Cepok S, Hemmer B, Kivisäkk P, Ransohoff RM, Hofbauer M, Farina C, Derfuss T, Hartle C, Newcombe J, Hohlfeld R, Meinl E. Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment. Brain. 2006;129(Pt 1):200-11.
Antibody levels were found to inversely correlate with BAFF so as you had more BAFF you had less antibody response.
BAFF is B cell factor involved in the growth of B cells, notably in makes immature B cells replicate and in is also a growth factor for plasma cells. In this study they found that in MS there were lower levels of BAFF in the spinal fluid. This is not new because the same authors have published this before.
Ruthenparampil M, Miante S, Federle L, Zanetta C, Toffanin E, Ruggero S, Rinaldi F, Gallo P. BAFF is decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis at clinical onset. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Aug 15;297:63-7. So you can block BAFF action and it gets rid of plasma cells.
What does this tell us about MS?
Any ideas MrT?