Front Immunol. 2017;8:652. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00652.
It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention.
Based on a review of the literature, it seems apparent that MS is a multifaceted autoimmune disease with potential contributions from Th17 cells and CD8+ T cells in demyelination. Although T cell dependency is well established, the quest for potential autoantibodies in MS is still going strong Popularly studied autoantigens in this field include MOG and aquaporin 4 (AQP4), although extensive research into these targets reveal that they are not, in fact, associated with MS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disease responsible for early disability in the young working population. In the last two decades, based on retrospective/prospective data, the use of disease-modifying therapies has been shown to slow the rate of disability progression and prolonged the time to conversion into secondary-progressive MS (SPMS). However, despite the availability of several approved therapies, disability progression cannot be halted significantly in all MS patients. Areas covered: This article reviews the immunopathology of the B-cells, and their role in pathogenesis of MS and their attractiveness as a potential therapeutic target in MS. The review focuses on the recently published ocrelizumab phase III trials in terms of its efficacy, safety, and tolerability as well as its future considerations. Expert opinion: B lymphocyte cell depletion therapy offers a compelling and promising new option for MS patients. Nonetheless, there is a need for heightened vigilance and awareness in detecting potential long-term consequences that currently remain unknown
Where would you pin your hopes, blocking T or B cells or Both? on