Areas of demyelination can be remyelinated by transplanting myelin-forming cells. Schwann cells are the naturally remyelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system and have a number of features that may make them attractive for cell implantation therapies in multiple sclerosis, in which spontaneous but limited Schwann cell remyelination has been well documented. Schwann cells can be expanded in vitro, potentially affording the opportunity of autologous transplantation; and they might also be spared the demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis. Although rat, cat, and monkey Schwann cells have been transplanted into rodent demyelinating lesions, the behavior of transplanted human Schwann cells has not been evaluated. In this study we examined the consequences of injecting human Schwann cells into areas of acute demyelination in the spinal cords of adult rats. We found that transplants containing significant fibroblast contamination resulted in deposition of large amounts of collagen and extensive axonal degeneration. However, Schwann cell preparations that had been purified by positive immunoselection using antibodies to human low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor containing less than 10% fibroblasts were associated with remyelination. This result indicates that fibroblast contamination of human Schwann cells represents a greater problem than would have been appreciated from previous studies.
Brierley CMH, Crang AJ, Iwashita Y, Gilson JM, Scolding NJ, Compston DAS, Blakemore WF. Remyelination of Demyelinated CNS Axons by Transplanted Human Schwann Cells: The Deleterious Effect of Contaminating Fibroblasts.Cell Transplant. 2001 Apr;10(3):305-315. doi: 10.3727/000000001783986774
Oligodendrocyte myelinate brain and spinal cord nerves whereas Schwann cells myelinate peripheral nerves, but sometimes they will migrate into the CNS to remyelinate. You can transplant in Schwann cells as a remyelination therapy and was tried in MS. However this study reports that you need to ensure the purity of the transplant, however if fibroblasts contaminated the cultures then they can cause to nerve damage. So when you get a cell transplant ensure they come from a reputable source