T cells back in the pack

Helper CD4 T cells expressing granzyme B cause glial fibrillary acidic protein fragmentation in astrocytes in an MHCII-independent manner. Stopnicki B, Blain M, Cui QL, Kennedy TE, Antel JP, Healy LM, Darlington PJ. Glia. 2018 Nov 16. doi: 10.1002/glia.23503. [Epub ahead of print]

During inflammatory processes of the central nervous system, helper T cells have the capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier and injure or kill neural cells through cytotoxic mechanisms. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein that is part of the astrocyte cytoskeleton that can become fragmented in neuroinflammatory conditions. The mechanism of action by which helper T cells with cytotoxic properties injure astrocytes is not completely understood. Primary human astrocytes were obtained from foetal brain tissue. Human helper (CD4+ ) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and activated with the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE). 

Granzyme B was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and intracellular flow cytometry. GFAP fragmentation was monitored by western blotting. Cell death was monitored by lactic acid dehydrogenase release and terminal biotin-dUTP nick labeling (TUNEL). Astrocyte migration was monitored by scratch assay. Adult human oligodendrocytes were cultured with sublethally injured astrocytes to determine support function. Helper T cells activated with SEE expressed granzyme B but not perforin. Helper T cells released granzyme B upon contact with astrocytes and caused GFAP fragmentation in a caspase-dependent, MHCII-independent manner. Sublethally injured astrocytes were not apoptotic; however, their processes were thin and elongated, their migration was attenuated, and their ability to support oligodendrocytes was reduced in vitro. Helper T cells can release granzyme B causing sublethal injury to astrocytes, which compromises the supportive functions of astrocytes. Blocking these pathways may lead to improved resolution of neuroinflammatory lesions.

CD4 T cells are usually activated by antigen and MHC class by antibegn presenting cells  in conjunction with co-stimulatory molecules.  In this stuy they used a superantigen which can trigger cells expressing certain T cell receptors and makes the T cell activated. In this study these cells release a molecule that can kill astrocytes. Would these cells kill astrocytes in MS and is this process relevant to MS,

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