Trying to understand whether a sneaky fag is bad for you?


The Genetic Background of Mice Influences the Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Onset and Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.Enzmann G, Adelfio R, Godel A, Haghayegh Jahromi N, Tietz S, Burgener SS, Deutsch U, Wekerle H, Benarafa C, Engelhardt B. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 21;20(6). pii: E1433. doi: 10.3390/ijms20061433.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults leading to severe disability. Besides genetic traits, environmental factors contribute to MS pathogenesis. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of MS in an HLA-dependent fashion, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we explored the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on spontaneous and induced models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by evaluating clinical disease and, when relevant, blood leukocytes and histopathology. In the relapsing-remitting (RR) transgenic model in SJL/J mice, we observed very low incidence in both smoke-exposed and control groups. In the optico-spinal encephalomyelitis (OSE) double transgenic model in C57BL/6 mice, the early onset of EAE prevented a meaningful evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoke. In EAE models induced by immunization, daily exposure to cigarette smoke caused a delayed onset of EAE followed by a protracted disease course in SJL/J mice. In contrast, cigarette smoke exposure ameliorated the EAE clinical score in C57BL/6J mice. Our exploratory studies therefore show that genetic background influences the effects of cigarette smoke on autoimmune neuroinflammation. Importantly, our findings expose the challenge of identifying an animal model for studying the influence of cigarette smoke in MS.

Do we need a model to study the influence of smoking?.

Is the use methanol cigarettes a gateway non-immunosuppressive alternative and can nicoine vaping get you back on track to get EAE?

More exciting stuff to follow no doubt. Wonder if we will get them to eat ice cream to see what the influence is. How does it compare to salt?

Cigarette smoke is irritating to the lungs and I guess this would be stressful to the animals and stress is immunosuppressive. This aspect does not seem to be controlled is it the cigarettes or the stress of being choked. C57BL/6 prefer to drink alcohol over water what next a ciggy and a pint?

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  • I thought cigarette smoke altered proteins in the lungs? Probably not going to be the same in different animals though? Would carbon monoxide levels not also be an issue, causing anoxia, direct brain damage. Then the inflammatory immune response occurs later…

  • Whats the point in even having a EAE model for studying effects of cigarette smoke on MS? Is this paid by tobacco lobby? Smoking is bad. Period. Why do we need tests/experiments to see if someone is more susceptible than other?? ITS BAD FOR YOU REGARDLESS IF THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN MS. Money should go somewhere else. *rant off*

  • Just a word of caution regarding language. As this blog is read by an international audience, local colloquialisms should probably be avoided. Here in the USA “sneaky fag” has a far different meaning than it does in the UK, and could cause many Americans quite a bit of consternation if they don’t understand the British slang…

    Honestly, not trying to be a scold, just trying to help avoid any sticky wickets…

    • Yes, but fag has many meanings, and I think the use of a basic dictionary can sort any such confusion out:

      fag: definition from

      The word fag has been in use in Britain to mean cigarette for a long time. Let’s not impoverish the English language. Let us rather promote dictionary use!

    • Agreed that is why there are generally links to a dictionary for the slang I use (Its part of the educational process…)….I guess you can’t put them in the title. However, it is my personal choice to write this way after being told not to do so by the blog administrators…However, it is how I speak. They would like me to put a “plumb up my arse” meaning to be Posh, like a proper gent and speak and write the Queens English (I guess this has other meanings too) but thats not me (Ass = Arse and I know in American = Fanny. Say that to at British person and their eyebrows rise too…it means the female Front bottom in British English :-)…it works both ways. You say tomAto but I don’t say potarto.:-(

      If you felt offended…sorry….no offence intended. Some people we will be offended on the way we use animals…I was:-

      • Oh geez, seems like I did come off sounding like a scold despite my protestations otherwise.

        No, I wasn’t offended at all. I’ve had many British friends (and, many moons ago, a Mancunian girlfriend), so I’m quite familiar with British slang. Back in the day I was a fan of “Oi” music (Cockney Rejects, etc. – though not a fan of the paki-bashing leanings of some of the bands), which furthered my appreciation of the verbiage used on London street corners.

        Guess you could say I was just taking the piss, whilst at the same times giving you a heads up regarding the offensive nature of the phrase “sneaky fag” to Americans not hip to British slang. Believe me, at least 8/10 of my countrymen have no idea that “fag” means cigarette in the UK, and given the politically correct frenzy of the day, most would have their knickers in a bunch within milliseconds of reading that phrase.

        Please, do continue writing in your usual style, it adds much needed color to potentially dry subject matter. Maybe be a little more careful with the headlines, though…

        • Don’t you just love internationalism… although we all speak the same language we still don’t really understand each other.

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