Thanks to Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky behavioural psychology and behavioural economics have become very sexy. Kahneman & Tversky have spawned an industry of nudge theorists; people who devise ways of getting populations of people to do things that are good for them.
People with MS are no different from the general population when it comes to doing what they are told to do. We have major issues getting MSers to adhere to lifestyle interventions.
In this long-term follow-up study below MSers who report higher levels of health promotion activities and greater functional ability tend to experience lower levels of fatigue, pain and sleep disturbance and higher levels of cognitive abilities in subsequent years.
Is this the chicken or the egg; i.e. did MSers who were simply doing better more likely to engage in healthy activities compared to those doing less well? The only way to sort this out is to do a randomised controlled trial, which is virtually impossible for lifestyle interventions. What we need are ways of getting MSers to adopt a Brain Healthy lifestyle as part of their routine management plan. The following is the list of things to do:
- Smoking – if you are a smoker stop smoking.
- Exercise – try and do 5x 30 min aerobic sessions per week. If this is too hard and you are not too disabled you can try HIIT (high-intensity interval training) instead.
- Diet – eat a healthy diet. My philosophy is to eat ‘real-food’ that is culturally compatible with your family and friends. Avoid ‘fad diets’ and processed foods, particularly processed carbohydrates.
- Alcohol – don’t consume too much alcohol, it is neurotoxic even in relatively small amounts.
- Sleep – please make sure you don’t have a sleep disorder and make sure you get good quality sleep.
- Comorbidities – make sure you are screened for co-morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, high cholesterol levels and dyslipidaemia) and get them treated.
- Infections – try and make sure you don’t get recurrent avoidable infections. The big one in MSers is UTIs.
- Concomitant medications – review your medications and try and reduce your anti-cholinergic burden as much as possible.
- Stress, depression and anxiety – if you suffer from these get them treated and managed actively. If you haven’t tried mindfulness therapy it is worth giving it a go.
- Social capital – work on your social networks. Make sure you have time for friends and family.
- Menopause – if you are menopausal you may want to consider hormone replacement therapy. The evidence on whether HRT makes a difference to MS outcomes is weak but interesting enough to consider it if you are a woman.
- Wellness – this not only refers to your lifestyle but how it relates to the environment and your spirituality. Many argue you need to live in harmony with the environment to be truly well. I tend to agree. For example, my problem is my carbon footprint, which is impacting on my wellness.
If you have any suggestions to help other MSers with adhering to these principles, or you have any other to add to the list, please feel free to comment. Don’t be shy.
I also think you need to find yourself a neurologist and/or HCP who walks the talk. It is difficult to take a neurologist who is obese, smokes and clearly does not look after himself or herself, seriously when they tell you to improve your lifestyle. Or maybe I am wrong?
Becker et al. Functional and health promotion predictors of PROMIS® scores in people with multiple sclerosis. Health Psychol. 2019 May;38(5):431-434.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of perceived functional abilities and health promotion activities on subsequent symptom experience among those who have lived with multiple sclerosis (MS) for many years.
METHODS: This longitudinal mailed survey study examined Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP) scores and MOS SF 36 scores as predictors of PROMIS® Pain Interference, Pain Intensity, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance, and Applied Cognition Abilities Scoresamong 260 adults with MS. The community-dwelling sample was initially recruited from the mailing list of the MS Society in a large southwestern state. Respondents were predominantly female, with an average age of 67 years. They had been diagnosed an average of 30 years. Forty per cent reported relapsing-remitting MS, and 41% have the more severe progressive form of the disease.
RESULTS: HPLP and SF 36 Role Physical, Role Emotional, and Social Function scores assessed in 2013 were moderately correlated (r > .30) with PROMIS® Fatigue and PROMIS® Cognitive Abilities scores measured in 2014 and were somewhat predictive of PROMIS® Pain and Sleep Disturbance scores (r > .20). These results were replicated in an analysis using data from Years 2016 and 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that those who report higher levels of health promotion activities and greater functional ability may experience lower levels of fatigue, pain, and sleep disturbance and higher levels of cognitive abilities in the subsequent year.