Three-dimensional surface models of autopsied human brains constructed from multiple photographs by photogrammetry. Shintaku H, Yamaguchi M, Toru S, Kitagawa M, Hirokawa K, Yokota T, Uchihara T. PLoS One. 2019; 14 :e0219619.
Virtual three-dimensional (3D) surface models of autopsied human brain hemispheres were constructed by integrating multiple two-dimensional (2D) photographs. To avoid gravity-dependent deformity, formalin-fixed hemispheres were placed on non-refractile, transparent acrylic plates, which allowed us to take 2D photographs from various different angles. Photogrammetric calculations using software (ReCap Pro cloud service, Autodesk, San Rafael, CA, USA) allowed us calculate the 3D surface of each brain hemisphere. Virtual brain models could be moved and rotated freely to allow smooth, seamless views from different angles and different magnifications. When viewing rotating 3D models on 2D screens, 3D aspects of the models were enhanced using motion parallax. Comparison of different brains using this method allowed us to identify disease-specific patterns of macroscopic atrophy, that were not apparent in conventional 2D photographs. For example, we observed frontal lobe atrophy in a progressive supranuclear palsy brain, and even more subtle atrophy in the superior temporal gyrus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Thus, our method facilities recognition of gyral atrophy. In addition, it provides a much more powerful and suitable way of visualizing the overall appearance of the brain as a three-dimensional structure. Comparison of normal and diseased brains will allow us to associate different macroscopic changes in the brain to clinical manifestations of various diseases.
If you want to see a 3D brain have a look at the movies