astrocyte

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Astrocytes (star-shapped cells that) are an often overlooked cells in the CNS.

Here they are depleted and disease gets worse

Inflammation and Demyelination in a Murine Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Allnoch L, Baumgärtner W, Hansmann F.Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(16). pii: E3922.

So lets get promote them?……. but maybe not

Neurotoxic potential (Nerve damaging) of reactive astrocytes in canine distemper demyelinating leukoencephalitis (Dog viral demyelination). Klemens J, Ciurkiewicz M, Chludzinski E, Iseringhausen M, Klotz D, Pfankuche VM, Ulrich R, Herder V, Puff C, Baumgärtner W, Beineke A.Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):11689

Its another example of cells being able to do good and bad things. Astrocytes are made for a reason and that is supporting brain health. One way is to help nerves and another way is to help create the blood brain barrier, which keeps stuff from the blood out of the brain. So there they are good but they can be made to make molecules that can kill nerves or make microglia kill nerves and there they are bad. This helps explains why drugs often have side effects. Cells can multi-task.

Within lesions cells do not behave the same

The landscape of myeloid and astrocyte phenotypes in acute multiple sclerosis lesions.Park C, Ponath G, Levine-Ritterman M, Bull E, Swanson EC, De Jager PL, Segal BM, Pitt D. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2019 Aug 12;7(1):130. (FREE ARTICLE)

Therefore until there are special tools to get at individual astrocyte functions, in humans there are bound to be consequences if we take a blanket approach to targetting astrocytes

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