Arni….What’s this got to do with COVID
Self-isolation? or Is it living with animals is how soo many of the human viral infections start.
However, probably nothing.
But when I say the story below, with my dyslexia, I read donkeys and thought about a post about Arni (above) and the old days when they used to use horses to make antibodies. They would infect horses with virus, bacteria and they would make an antibody to the infection. People would bleed the horse and then then purify the antibodies. These may then prevent infection if you inject horse anibodies into humans. Occassionally humans would make antibodies to the horse antibodies and they would form complexes of horse and human antibody. These would deposit in tissues and cause “serum sickness”, which if you remember can occur when you make an anti-drug response to therapeutic MS antibodies. In those days, people probably didn’t object to use of animals helping humans and it is kind of strange that the anti-vivs(vivsectionists) seem to have gone abit silent on the use of animals in our bid to find treatments to this wretched virus. However, whilst my mind said Donkies, I had actually been shown Monkies. OK, you don’t spell the plural of Donkey as Donkies and this was a story about re-infecting monkies with COVID-19.
What they reported was the monkies that made an antibody/immune response against the virus would be protected from a re-infection. So fullfills principle 101 of immunity.
However, when they kill the monkies they could find evidence of viral particles in the tissues. This suggests that in the people who have the virus then test negative for the virus and are released from hospital and then are retested positive with virus, sugggests that this may have been more to do with chance. Rememebr PCR is very sensitive but if the viral particle wasn’t in you mouth or nose when you get swabbed, doesn’t mean you are free of virus. This supports the view that once you are immune, you are immune and are unlikely to catch the virus again. However, if the virus mutates its coat notably the spike protein through which it infects….the rules change.
However, back to the vision of the donkies being drained. Believe it or not it is actually happening they have bled people in China who have recovered and have protected people indicating that antibodies are important in the fight against viruses. Now wipe the idea of Chinese convicts attached to tubes draining their blood, from you head….Yep It’s in there now:-)
However we use the donkey idea every day. This is called Intravenous Immunolgobulin. This is used to treat antibody-induced autoimmunity and is used in MS occassionally and it probably blocks the Fc receptors and other things, but it also provides immunity to infection using the immunity of the “Herd”. These are pooled from a 1,000-15,000 different people, purified and chemicall treated to kill infections in the blood. For your information a major Japaneese pharmaceutical company who manufactures intravenous immunoglobulin, has got approval to bleed COVID virus survivors. This should stop infection if the right dose is found.
Hopefully something like this can be used to protect people in the front line as it is the Medical Professional who are at the highest risk of infection. I wonder if the idea of the Government is to infect the Health Care Professionals during this first wave of infections as we are constantly told the typicalmasks are rubbish at stopping infections, but they are all wearing rubbish masks when you seee then on the tele, then put us in Lock down, whilst they recover and so they can get the surviors back in the A&E for the next wave all nice and immune…..Yep I know a crack-pot idea.
Anyway after this light-hearted breakfast reading with a twist.
Here is a hypothesis and so is idea only. Once you make an antibody response to new infections from your immature and mature cells, the antibody producing plasma cells go to the bone marrow and are long-lived. If you look at long-lived plasma cells they (a) Don’t express CD20 and so are not doing to be killed by ocrelizumab (b) The don’t express much CD52 and so are probably less sensitive to alemtuzumab and (c) the don’t express much deoxycytokine kinease and so may be less sensitive to cladribine.
Is there evidence to support this, well with the former you childhood immunities seem to persist. As as you make it through this troubled time, maybe you bloods will tell us if this hypothesis.