To get a vaccine response for COVID-19 we need antibodies but we also need T cells. CD4 T cells help macrophages and B cells and others to do their stuff. CD8 T cells are the main anti-viral cells. So studies in people infected with COVID show a clear anti-COVID response and people treated with novel COVID-19 vaccines show antibody and T cell responses (Zhu et al. Lancet. 2020 May 22:S0140-6736(20)31208-3).DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31208-3
It seems that most people with MS do OK. Why may this be the case.?
It may be because we have some immunity from past coronavirus exposure. There are a number of strains that cause a cold. It seems when scientists looked at people who have not been exposed to COVID-19 it seems that some people have cross-reactive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens.
The interesting thing was when non-exposed people where examined although about 23% could react to the Spike protein and a number of people reacted to non-structural prtoeins, there was no, or marginal, reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid. This probably one reason why nucleocapsid seems to be a good target for COVID-19 tests. Phew, just as well DrAngry has made 1.6million tests in 2 days…with abit a paper work that could easily be 70 million in 2 more.
Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in COVID-19 patients and healthy donors.Braun et al. MeDRXiv doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.17.20061440
Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals, Grifoni A et al. PII: S0092-8674(20)30610-3 Cell 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015