Anti-Drug Antibodies

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Using Serum Metabolomics to Predict Development of Anti-drug Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With IFNβ.Waddington KE, Papadaki A, Coelewij L, Adriani M, Nytrova P, Kubala Havrdova E, Fogdell-Hahn A, Farrell R, Dönnes P, Pineda-Torra I, Jury EC.Front Immunol. 2020 Jul 17;11:1527

Background: Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (ADA) can greatly reduce the efficacy of biopharmaceuticals used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the biological factors pre-disposing an individual to develop ADA are poorly characterized. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need for biomarkers to predict the development of immunogenicity, and subsequent treatment failure. Up to 35% of MS patients treated with beta interferons (IFNβ) develop ADA. Here we use machine learning to predict immunogenicity against IFNβ utilizing serum metabolomics data. 

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 89 MS patients as part of the ABIRISK consortium-a multi-center prospective study of ADA development. Metabolites and ADA were quantified prior to and after IFNβ treatment. Thirty patients became ADA positive during the first year of treatment (ADA+).

 Results: We were able to predict future immunogenicity from baseline metabolomics data. Furthermore, patients who become ADA+ had a distinct metabolic response to IFNβ in the first 3 months, with 29 differentially regulated metabolites. Machine learning algorithms could also predict ADA status based on metabolite concentrations at 3 months. Finally, we hypothesized that serum lipids could contribute to ADA development by altering immune-cell lipid rafts. This was supported by experimental evidence demonstrating that, prior to IFNβ exposure, lipid raft-associated lipids were differentially expressed between MS patients who became ADA+ or remained ADA-. Conclusion: Serum metabolites are a promising biomarker for prediction of ADA development in MS patients treated with IFNβ, and could provide novel insight into mechanisms of immunogenicity

Maybe the next study would be to see if ADA to antibodies show the same pattern. What’s Machine Learning you ask?…Neuro looks at the computer reads one of our papers and decides anti-drug antibodies are a problem🙂

Monitoring ADA is one of the research projects we have and COVID-19 has been good and bad. It has taken us away from the job of developing assays for the antibodies, however, it has focuused us our minds towards remove monitoring. Watch this space.

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