Barts-MS rose-tinted-odometer: ★★★★★
Good news for people with MS living in the US. The National Multiple Sclerosis Society is acknowledging that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) is an effective treatment for MS as is recommending AHSCT a useful treatment option for pwMS who have substantial breakthrough disease activity despite treatment with high-efficacy DMTs or have contraindications to high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies. The acknowledge that pwMS younger than 50 years with shorter durations of disease (<10 years) have the most to gain from AHSCT.
The big question is will insurers and national funders pay for HSCT in the US based on this recommendation or will they still need FDA approval?
The good news for pwMS living in the UK is that the NHS already covers the cost of HSCT and MS is on the list of approved autoimmune diseases for treatment with HSCT. The problem in the UK is not necessarily the access to the treatment, but to get risk-averse neurologists to refer pwMS for the procedure or am I wrong?
Miller et al. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in Multiple Sclerosis Recommendations of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society. JAMA Neurol. Published online October 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.4025
Importance: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) for multiple sclerosis has gained increasing interest in recent years. Despite the availability of many US Food and Drug Administration–approved disease-modifying therapies, some patients do not respond adequately and others may have very early aggressive disease that prompts consideration of alternative, highly effective, long-lasting therapy. The National Medical Advisory Committee of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society has reviewed recent literature on AHSCT for the purpose of making recommendations about its use based on current knowledge, as well as pointing out areas of controversy and issues requiring further research.
Observations: Studies on AHSCT have repeatedly demonstrated high efficacy and a durable outcome in people with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recent studies have shown considerable improvement in the safety of the procedure, with much lower mortality rates than were reported earlier. Consensus is emerging about the characteristics of the best candidates for the procedure. Questions remain about the ideal protocol, particularly about the best conditioning regimen to be used to kill immune cells. Larger randomized clinical trials are needed to address the question of whether AHSCT has advantages over the most efficacious disease-modifying agents currently available. One such trial (Best Available Therapy Versus Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Multiple Sclerosis [BEAT-MS) is currently in progress.
Conclusions and Relevance: The National Multiple Sclerosis Society believes that AHSCT may be a useful treatment option for people with relapsing multiple sclerosis who demonstrate substantial breakthrough disease activity (ie, new inflammatory central nervous system lesions and/or clinical relapses) despite treatment with high-efficacy disease-modifying therapy or have contraindications to high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies. The best candidates are likely people younger than 50 years with shorter durations of disease (<10 years). The procedure should only be performed at centers with substantial experience and expertise. Ideally, recipients of the procedure should be entered into a single database, and further research is needed to establish ideal cell mobilization and immune-conditioning regimens.