Injection site reactions COVID-19

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The modellers think T cells are the important lymphocyte subset for control of COVID-19. Maybe Good news for the B cell depleters

Impairment of T cells’ antiviral and anti-inflammation immunities dominates the death from COVID-19 She, Z.-s., Scholes, G., Zhang, L., Li, R., Song, G.10.1101/2021.04.26.21256093 — Posted: 2021-04-29

Clarifying key factors dominating the immune heterogeneity from non-survivors to survivors is crucial for therapeutics and vaccine developments against COVID-19. The main difficulty is to quantitatively analyze the multi-level clinical data of viral dynamics, immune response, and tissue damages. Here, we adopt top-down modeling to quantify key functional aspects and their dynamical interplays in the virus-immune system battle, yielding an accurate description of real-time clinical data involving hundreds of patients. The quantification of antiviral responses demonstrates T cells’ dominant role in the virus clearance relative to antibodies, especially for mild patients(96.5%). Moreover, the anti-inflammatory responses, namely cytokine inhibition rate and tissue repair rate also have positive correlations with T cell number, and are significantly suppressed in non-survivors. Simulations show that impaired immune functions of T cells leads to greater inflammation (thus dominates the death), explaining the monotonous increase of COVID-19 mortality with age and higher mortality for males. We conclude that T cells play the role of crucial immunity that saves the death from COVID-19, which points out a new direction to advance current prevention and treatment by incorporating the vaccines, drugs and health care activities that aim to improve T cells’ number and functions.

We suggested that that you could get rid of SARS-CoV-2 before you got a significant B cell responses implicating an important role of T cells and the innate (macrophages and neutrophils). We said all this over a year ago.

Seroconversion rates following COVID-19 vaccination amongst patients with malignant disease- the impact of diagnosis and cancer-directed therapiesThakkar, A., Gonzalez Lugo, J., Goradia, N., Gali, R., Shapiro, L. C., Pradhan, K., Rahman, S., Kim, S. Y., Ko, B., Sica, R. A., Kornblum, N., Bachier-Rodriguez, L., McCort, M., Goel, S., Perez-Soler, R., Packer, S., Sparano, J., Gartrell, B., Makower, D., Goldstein, Y. D., Wolgast, L., Verma, A., Halmos, B.10.1101/2021.05.07.21256824 — Posted: 2021-05-14

More data from cancer studies show that anti-CD20 therapy reduce COVID-19 vaccine responses

Immunosuprresion reduces B cell response but T cell response may be more visible

Cellular immunity predominates over humoral immunity after the first dose of COVID-19 vaccines in solid organ transplant recipientsSchmidt, T., Klemis, V., Schub, D., Schneitler, S., Reichert, M. C., Wilkens, H., Sester, U., Sester, M., Mihm, J.10.1101/2021.05.07.21256809 — Posted: 2021-05-14

Knowledge on the vaccine-induced cellular and humoral immunity and on immunogenicity of vector-based and mRNA vaccines in solid organ transplant recipients is limited. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells and antibodies were analyzed in 40 transplant recipients and 70 age-matched controls after the first dose of vector-based or mRNA vaccines. Plasmablasts and SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells were quantified using flow-cytometry. Specific antibodies were analyzed by ELISA and neutralization assay. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies and T-cells were induced in both groups with significantly lower levels in patients. While antibodies were detected in 80% of controls and 5.3% of patients, specific CD4 and/or CD8 T-cells were more frequently found in both controls (84.3%) and patients (23.7%). The two vaccine types showed notable differences, as IgG and neutralizing activity were more pronounced after mRNA vaccination (p<0.0001 each), whereas CD4 and CD8 T-cell levels were higher after vector vaccination (p=0.009; p<0.0001). Plasmablast numbers were significantly higher in controls and correlated with SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG- and CD4 T-cell levels. In conclusion, assessment of antibodies is not sufficient to identify COVID-19-vaccine responders. Together with differences in immunogenicity among vaccines, this necessitates combined analysis of humoral and cellular immunity to reliably assess responders among immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals.

For your interest

Neutralization potential of Covishield (Astraveneca) vaccinated individuals against B.1.617.1 (Indian Variant)

Neutralization potential of Covishield vaccinated individuals against B.1.617.1Yadav, P., Sapkal, G. N., Abraham, P., Deshpande, G., Nyayanit, D., Patil, D. Y., Gupta, N., Sahay, R. R., Shete, A., Kumar, S., Panda, S., Bhargava, B.10.1101/2021.05.12.443645 — Posted: 2021-05-12

 In-spite of reduction in the neutralizing titer against B.1.617.1 variant; Covishield (AZ) vaccine-induced antibodies are likely to be protective to limit the severity and mortality of the disease in the vaccinated individuals.

Disclaimer: Please note that the opinions expressed here are those of author and do not necessarily reflect the position of the Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry nor Barts Health NHS Trust.

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MouseDoctor

3 comments

  • Did I miss the bit on injection site reactions? Not that it really matters, but I had a massive local reaction with second AZ.

    Glass half full, taken as a good sign, clearly made some sort of response!

    Have a good weekend
    AM 🙂

  • Gave me a start just now, to see ‘Covishield’ mentioned on the MS Blog

    Thank you for the info. It’s good to know that Covishield is likely to have some effect
    Here in Delhi we’re probably exposed to B.1617.1 (and it’s new improved versions), and Covishield is what most of us have received (or will receive)

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