T cell profiling and another treatment for EAE/MS

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Metabolic modeling of single Th17 cells reveals regulators of autoimmunity

Wagner A, Wang C, Fessler J, DeTomaso D, Avila-Pacheco J, Kaminski J, Zaghouani S, Christian E, Thakore P, Schellhaass B, Akama-Garren E, Pierce K, Singh V, Ron-Harel N, Douglas VP, Bod L, Schnell A, Puleston D, Sobel RA, Haigis M, Pearce EL, Soleimani M, Clish C, Regev A, Kuchroo VK, Yosef N. Metabolic modeling of single Th17 cells reveals regulators of autoimmunity. Cell. 2021 Jun 29:S0092-8674(21)00700-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.045. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34216539.

Metabolism is a major regulator of immune cell function, but it remains difficult to study the metabolic status of individual cells. Here, we present Compass, an algorithm to characterize cellular metabolic states based on single-cell RNA sequencing and flux balance analysis. We applied Compass to associate metabolic states with T helper 17 (Th17) functional variability (pathogenic potential) and recovered a metabolic switch between glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, akin to known Th17/regulatory T cell (Treg) differences, which we validated by metabolic assays. Compass also predicted that Th17 pathogenicity was associated with arginine and downstream polyamine metabolism. Indeed, polyamine-related enzyme expression was enhanced in pathogenic Th17 and suppressed in Treg cells. Chemical and genetic perturbation of polyamine metabolism inhibited Th17 cytokines, promoted Foxp3 expression, and remodeled the transcriptome and epigenome of Th17 cells toward a Treg-like state. In vivo perturbations of the polyamine pathway altered the phenotype of encephalitogenic T cells and attenuated tissue inflammation in CNS autoimmunity.

So this is hard core lab lesson materia,l which would take ages to explain properly. But if you believe TH17 CD4 T cells are the centre of the MS universe then modifying their metabolism may lead to treatment. They got targets by studying pathogenic and non Pathogenic TH17 cells. I must say the effects in the animals were no that great compared to what you can do with some current MS drugs. Maybe something for the future

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