If you are interested you can have a read of this paper. I don’t comment much on microbiome (gut bacteria) stuff, because frankly I don’t understand it. Yep we are what we eat but which bacteria and how do they influence disease is complex. What are the pathways and are there any common componenents? Looking as a handful of papers their seem to be more options than “hot dinners” Maybe we need some guest posts on this from people in the know
Gut microbiome is associated with multiple sclerosis activity in children.Horton MK, McCauley K, Fadrosh D, Fujimura K, Graves J, Ness J, Wheeler Y, Gorman MP, Benson LA, Weinstock-Guttman B, Waldman A, Rodriguez M, Tillema JM, Krupp L, Belman A, Mar S, Rensel M, Chitnis T, Casper TC, Rose J, Hart J, Shao X, Tremlett H, Lynch SV, Barcellos LF, Waubant E; U.S. Network of Pediatric MS Centers.Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2021 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/acn3.51441.
Objective: To identify features of the gut microbiome associated with multiple sclerosis activity over time.
Methods: We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing from stool of 55 recently diagnosed pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis patients. Microbiome features included the abundance of individual microbes and networks identified from weighted genetic correlation network analyses.
Results: Participants were followed, on average, 2.1 years. Five microbes were nominally associated with all three disease activity outcomes after multiple testing correction. These included butyrate producers Odoribacter (relapse hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.88) and Butyricicoccus (relapse hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.88). Two networks of co-occurring gut microbes were significantly associated with a higher hazard of both MRI outcomes (gadolinium-enhancing lesion hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Modules 32 and 33 were 1.29 (1.08, 1.54) and 1.42 (1.18, 1.71), respectively; T2 lesion hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Modules 32 and 33 were 1.34 (1.15, 1.56) and 1.41 (1.21, 1.64), respectively). Metagenomic predictions of these networks demonstrated enrichment for amino acid biosynthesis pathways.
Interpretation: Both individual and networks of gut microbes were associated with longitudinal multiple sclerosis activity. Known functions and metagenomic predictions of these microbes suggest the important role of butyrate and amino acid biosynthesis pathways. This provides strong support for future development of personalized microbiome interventions to modify multiple sclerosis disease activity.
Galluzzo P et al. Comparison of the Intestinal Microbiome of Italian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Household Relatives. Life (Basel). 2021 Jun 26;11(7):620.
In this study, we compared the gut microbiome in MS patients and their household healthy relatives sharing lifestyle and environmental factors…..We observed an increase in Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Clostridiales, and Family XIII in MS patients, while Bacteroidaceae, Tannerellaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Burkholderiaceae were more abundant in healthy controls
Ling Z, Cheng Y, Yan X, Shao L, Liu X, Zhou D, Zhang L, Yu K, Zhao L. Alterations of the Fecal Microbiota in Chinese Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2020 Dec 16;11:590783.We observed that while the overall structure of the fecal microbiota did not change significantly, the abundances of several key functional bacteria, primarily Faecalibacterium, decreased remarkably. Faecalibacterium and Granulicatella could be used to distinguish between patients with MS
Cox LM, Maghzi AH, Liu S, Tankou SK, Dhang FH, Willocq V, Song A, Wasén C, Tauhid S, Chu R, Anderson MC, De Jager PL, Polgar-Turcsanyi M, Healy BC, Glanz BI, Bakshi R, Chitnis T, Weiner HL. Gut Microbiome in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2021 Jun;89(6):1195-1211.Microbiota β-diversity differed between MS patients and controls but did not differ between RRMS and progressive MS or differ based on disease-modifying therapies. Disease status had the greatest effect on the microbiome β-diversity, followed by body mass index, race, and sex. In both progressive MS and RRMS, we found increased Clostridium bolteae, Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans, and Akkermansia and decreased Blautia wexlerae, Dorea formicigenerans, and Erysipelotrichaceae CCMM. Unique to progressive MS, we found elevated Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium g24 FCEY and decreased Blautia and Agathobaculum. Several Clostridium species were associated with higher EDSS and fatigue scores. Contrary to the view that elevated Akkermansia in MS has a detrimental role, we found that Akkermansia was linked to lower disability, suggesting a beneficial role.
Eckman E, Laman JD, Fischer KF, Lopansri B, Martins TB, Hill HR, Kriesel JD. Spinal fluid IgG antibodies from patients with demyelinating diseases bind multiple sclerosis-associated bacteria. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021:1–13. A panel of 10 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for the detection of anti-microbial immune responses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with demyelinating diseases (DD). The anti-microbial ELISA assays follow on prior human brain tissue RNA sequencing studies that established multiple sclerosis (MS) microbial candidates. Lysates included in the ELISA panel were derived from Akkermansia muciniphila, Atopobium vaginae, Bacteroides fragilis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Odoribacter splanchnicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Streptococcus mutans. CSF responses from patients with demyelinating diseases (DD, N = 14) were compared to those with other neurological diseases (OND, N = 8) and controls (N = 13). Commercial positive and negative control CSF specimens were run with each assay. ELISA index values were derived for each specimen against each of the 10 bacterial lysates. CSF reactivity was significantly higher in the DD group compared to the controls against Akkermansia, Atopobium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Odoribacter, and Fusobacterium. Four of the 11 tested DD group subjects had elevated antibody indexes against at least one of the 10 bacterial species, suggesting intrathecal antibody production. This CSF serological study supports the hypothesis that several of the previously identified MS candidate microbes contribute to demyelination in some patients. KEY MESSAGES: A panel of 10 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for the detection of anti-microbial immune responses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. CSF reactivity was significantly higher in the demyelination group compared to the controls against the bacteria Akkermansia, Atopobium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Odoribacter, and Fusobacterium. Several of the demyelination subjects had elevated antibody indexes against at least one of the 10 antigens, suggesting at least limited intrathecal production of anti-bacterial antibodies. This CSF serological study supports the hypothesis that several of the previously identified MS candidate microbes contribute to demyelination in some patients.
So what is common here to explain a common presentation of a condition across many parts of the World