Adamec I, Rogić D, Penz MG, Braun C, Habek M. Humoral and cellular immunity in convalescent COVID-19 people with multiple sclerosis treated with ofatumumab. J Neuroimmunol. 2021 3;362:577788. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577788.
Objectives: To report clinical outcome, development of humoral and T-cell mediated immunity in convalescent COVID-19 people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ofatumumab in the ALITHIOS study from a single center.
Methods: Testing for SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies was performed on two occasions with at least three months apart between the two testing. During the second antibody testing, interferon-γ ELISpot was used to assess cellular immunity.
Results: All four subjects had mild COVID-19 infection without any sequelae. In all subjects except subject 2, COVID-19 was confirmed with PCR. Subjects 1, 2 and 4 had normal levels of IgM and IgG without measurable counts of CD19 cells prior to COVID-19. Subject 3 administered the last dose of ofatumumab 24 days prior to COVID-19 symptoms, but had a gap of 28 weeks of ofatumumab application beforehand due to low IgM levels. Subject 4 received COVID-19 vaccinations before second testing, so second testing and T-cell immunity testing were not performed. Subjects who were CD19 depleted did not had measurable levels of SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies. Subject 3 had first and second SARS-COV2 titer of 118 U/ml and > 250 U/ml, respectively. All three pwMS showed T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Quotient of basal spots divided by interferon-γ secreting spot forming units were 4, 8 and 14.7 SI in subjects 1, 2 and 3, respectively (>3 considered reactive).
Conclusion: While no antibody response was observed in pwMS who were CD19+ lymphocyte depleted, T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in all three pwMS treated with ofatumumab.