Neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated people with multiple sclerosis.Gyang TV, Evans JP, Miller JS, Alcorn K, Peng J, Bell EH, Zeng C, Gumina R, Liu SL, Segal BM.Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2022 Mar 22;8(1):20552173221087357. doi: 10.1177/20552173221087357.

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are often treated with disease modifying therapies (DMT) with immunomodulatory effects. This is of particular concern following the development of several vaccines to combat coronavirus disease 19 (COVD-19), a potentially fatal illness caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal study in pwMS. Longitudinal serum samples were obtained prior to, and after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. A novel neutralizing antibody (nAb) assay was used to determine nAbs titres against SARS-CoV-2 spike.

Results: We observed that (1) pwMS on B-cell depleting therapies exhibited reduced response to vaccination compared to other pwMS, correlating with time from last anti-CD20 infusion, (2) prior COVID-19 illness, DMT category, and pyramidal function were significant predictors of vaccine responsiveness, and (3) circulating absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and IgG levels correlated with nAb levels.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that pwMS exhibit reduced nAb response to mRNA vaccination dependent on DMT status and identify predictive biomarkers for vaccine efficacy. We conclude that additional vaccination strategies may be necessary to achieve protective immunity in pwMS.

Kavosh A, Ashtari F, Naghavi S, Adibi I, Shaygannejad V, Karimi Z, Arabi S, Rahimi M, Mazaheri S. Safety of Sinopharm vaccine for people with Multiple Sclerosis: Study of adverse reactions and disease activity. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2022 Feb 21;61:103708. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103708.

However not everyone in the World has got MRNA vaccines and some people will get inacctivated virus (Sinovac/Coronavac). This means you get immunity to nucleocapsid, Spike, membrane and other proteins compared to immunity just to Spike. Whilst the levels of antibody induced are lower than with the RNA vaccines meaning you are less likely to stop infection,but if you are infected you have a broader protection than with the RNA vaccines in terms of what the immune response can see.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of Sinofarm vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Methods: This study was conducted on pwMS patients in Isfahan, Iran. All participants received two doses of BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm vaccine). Demographic information and data on vaccine side effects were collected after each dose using questionnaires. All patients that recorded worsening of MS symptoms were evaluated and those with true relapse were treated with IV methyl prednisolone.

Results: Of the 1538 patients, 1151 (74.8%) were female and the mean age was 40.45 ± 9.74. The average disease duration was 10.38±6.81 years and 76.1% of participants had RRMS. 92.8% of the participants were using DMTs and mean EDSS was 2.06 ± 3.16. 54.2% (833 patient) reported at least one adverse event after the first dose of vaccine and 46.8% (720 patient) after the second dose; in both cases going away in a few days. Most prevalent adverse events after both doses were injection site pain, headache, myalgia, fever and fatigue. Adverse events were more prevalent in younger and less prevalent in mildly disabled patients. There were seven cases of Covid-19 infection between the first and second vaccination dose, and eight cases during one-month follow -up after the second dose, none of whom needed mechanical ventilation. Ten patients after first dose and thirteen patients after the second dose experienced acute relapse. A patient had two relapses, one after each vaccine dose that were clinically and radiologically confirmed. The first relapse occurred seven days after the first vaccination with hemiparesis and other relapse, 14 days after the second dose with diplopia, hemiparesis and ataxia.

Conclusion: Adverse events in pwMS following vaccination with Sinopharm vaccine was similar to the general population, which were more common in younger patients and less common in those with mild disability. As no increase in relapse rate after vaccination was detected, Sinopharm vaccine was safe in MS patients.

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