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Can ProfK join the Dots?

When we were children we used to get Dot to Dot books where you would join the dots to make a picture. If you just have dots you don’t really have a clue what it is you are drawing Add a few lines to give a context and a more complete picture and it is alot easier to see what is going on, when you join the dots. So ProfK will be getting a book for Christmas so that he learns to tell his...

WHY NOW? I COULD HAVE BEEN RICH OFF THIS ONE! TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR BETA MAKING FOLLICLES

You ask if this paper is interesting James Bates RE, Browne E, Schalks R, Jacobs H, Tan L, Parekh P, Magliozzi R, Calabrese M, Mazarakis ND, Reynolds R. Lymphotoxin–alpha expression in the meninges causes lymphoid tissue formation and neurodegeneration. Brain. 2022 Jul 1:awac232. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac232. Yes, but I would say NSS wasn’t this obvious 30 thirtys ago...

Inhibiting Migration of Macrophages

Why choose this post to discuss. It’s all about migration inhibiton factor. Why is this interesting Ibudilast is a molecule that blocks phospodiesterase 4 and inhibits progressive MS. Rolipram also blocks phosphodiesterase 4 and maybe makes relapsing MS worse. What’s the difference. One thing ibudilast does is that it blocks migration inhibiton factor…..which inhibits macrophage...

MS News The Hare and Tortoise Race for BTK inhibitors. A pit stop created by the regulators

These are done to stop a crash. Brutons tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi) are the next bid hope for pharma and they all after the same goal to develop their drug development programmes and to start selling drug. This drug blocks signalling of B cells and macrophages and so is an essentially no brainer for relapsing MS, as every drug that works in MS blocks B cells, but targeting microgla is a big...

Benign verses active disease shows brain shrinkage

Your thalamus is your body’s information relay station. All information from the body’s senses (except smell) must be processed through your thalamus before being sent to the brain’s cerebral cortex (front bit) for interpretation. The thalamus also plays a role in sleep, wakefulness, consciousness, learning and memory. Shrinkage of the thalamus sems to be a common feature of...

Which iMod

There are four different S1P receptor modulators available and they include fingolimod, siponimod, ozanimod and ponesimod but how are they used. In the USA it is simple any of the agents can be used. The labels of the FDA say “ XXXXXX (insert any of the above drugs) “is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis...

How does alemtuzumab work

We have made the case that many agents work because they target B cells, but the prevailing”immunologist” view is that augmentation of T regulatory cells is the key. This in part because following depletion there is a relative balance shift that causes more depletion of the CD4 T cells. Therefore there is a relative increase in the T reg to CD4 ratio. However if you look at the...

Watch out for Space Travel

Every now and then we get an unusual paper that draws me like a magnet. If you have a few million squid to blow….you may be considering lining the pockets of Elon Musk or Sir Richard Branson for a trip into space….but as you go weight-less, I guess you are pondering what does space do to your oligodendrocytes….Fear not someone has been looking at this….and you can read it...

EBV vaccines in Animals

For many years the MS community has been extremely sceptical about the importance of EBV in the cause of multiple sclerosis, but following a couple of papers last year (one compelling, the other not really) and the MS World woke up to stuff prof G has been banging on about for years. Moderna who have made a COVID-19 vaccine have an EBV vaccine in trial. Here they look at another vaccine that is...

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