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How does cladribine work

As promised, I now provide you with a link that will provide you with full and free access to the paper for fifty days.
You can download, read and come back to ask questions. Here is the link.

Enjoy.
COI Multiple This was not company sponsored

EDSS

Time between expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores.Zurawski J, Glanz BI, Chua A, Lokhande H, Rotstein D, Weiner H, Engler D, Chitnis T, Healy BC. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Feb 5;30:98-103.  BACKGROUND: Although the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is the most commonly used measure of disability for multiple sclerosis, measurement of disability accumulation is complex...

More B cell stuff. Don’t deal with the B cells…Don’t deal with disease?

Longitudinally persistent cerebrospinal fluid B-cells can resist treatment in multiple sclerosis.Greenfield AL, Dandekar R, Ramesh A, Eggers EL, Wu H, Laurent S, Harkin W, Pierson NS, Weber MS, Henry RG, Bischof A, Cree BA, Hauser SL, Wilson MR, von Büdingen HC. JCI Insight. 2019 Feb 12. pii: 126599. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.126599. [Epub ahead of print] B-cells are key contributors to...

To B or Not to B..that’s is ProfG’s Atrophy Question

Effect of disease-modifying therapies on subcortical gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.Sotirchos ES, Gonzalez-Caldito N, Dewey BE, Fitzgerald KC, Glaister J, Filippatou A, Ogbuokiri E, Feldman S, Kwakyi O, Risher H, Crainiceanu C, Pham DL, Van Zijl PC, Mowry EM, Reich DS, Prince JL, Calabresi PA, Saidha S. Mult Scler. 2019 Feb 11:1352458519826364. BACKGROUND:The effects of disease...

How Does Cladribine Work?

Here is a new offering from the CLAD lads :-), and follows on from the information that we got from the European Medicines Agency and from stuff in the public domain. This is not a pharma supported piece of work and they may have different views of how cladribine works or how they want to portray how they think this works, but as usual for us, it contains ideas of the unknown. Things we and...

Making B cells

We have been discussing whether Epstein Barr Virus could trigger MS, without the requirement for T cells. It is thought that high-affinity (strong binding) isotype–switched (Antibodies such as IgG that develop from proteotypic IgD or IgM producing B cells) antibodies by B cells depends on signals from CD4+ Thelper cells. Antigen (Ag) binding to surface Ig molecules (BCRs) causes naive (mature) B...

Brain Atrophy

ProfG has been addressing the issue of brain shrinkage and asking-Which agents are the best? We may not all agree on what is the best, but one can ask what is/are the worse. If we can address this problem and agree, then surely it is time to say “It’s rubbish! Throw it in the Bin!” (A comment I once heard at an MS Life meeting) The obvious answer is……yep you guessed...

Blocking Calcium, Should we listen to mouse studies or plough on regardless

Calcium Influx through Plasma-Membrane Nanoruptures Drives Axon Degeneration in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Witte ME, Schumacher AM, Mahler CF, Bewersdorf JP, Lehmitz J, Scheiter A, Sánchez P, Williams PR, Griesbeck O, Naumann R, Misgeld T, Kerschensteiner M. Neuron. 2019 Jan 6. pii: S0896-6273(18)31123-1. Axon loss determines persistent disability in multiple sclerosis patients...

How big is your lesion

MRI has revolutionised the assessment of MS. If you have a lesion on MRI what does it mean? Evidence for a white matter lesion size threshold to support the diagnosis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Grahl S1, Pongratz V1, Schmidt P1, Engl C1, Bussas M1, Radetz A2, Gonzalez-Escamilla G2, Groppa S3, Zipp F3, Lukas C4, Kirschke J5, Zimmer C5, Hoshi M6, Berthele A6, Hemmer B7, Mühlau...

Microbiome Research Where will it lead us?

ProfG loves throwing a spanner in the works to get you thinking and keeping us on our toes. However, I have been charstisted for my outspoken views that many of my peers are unthinking lemmings that follow the masses jumping off the intellectual cliff. Microbiome is the answer to autoimmunity is a current dogma and you are spending millions of pounds doing trial after trial in every human disease...

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