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How does cladribine work?

As promised, I now provide you with a link that will provide you with full and free access to the paper for fifty days. You can download, read and come back to ask questions. Here is the link.

Enjoy.
COI Multiple This was not company sponsored

EDSS

Time between expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores.Zurawski J, Glanz BI, Chua A, Lokhande H, Rotstein D, Weiner H, Engler D, Chitnis T, Healy BC. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Feb 5;30:98-103.  BACKGROUND: Although the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is the most commonly used measure of disability for multiple sclerosis, measurement of disability accumulation is complex...

More B cell stuff. Don’t deal with the B cells…Don’t deal with disease?

Longitudinally persistent cerebrospinal fluid B-cells can resist treatment in multiple sclerosis.Greenfield AL, Dandekar R, Ramesh A, Eggers EL, Wu H, Laurent S, Harkin W, Pierson NS, Weber MS, Henry RG, Bischof A, Cree BA, Hauser SL, Wilson MR, von Büdingen HC. JCI Insight. 2019 Feb 12. pii: 126599. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.126599. [Epub ahead of print] B-cells are key contributors to...

To B or Not to B..that’s is ProfG’s Atrophy Question

Effect of disease-modifying therapies on subcortical gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.Sotirchos ES, Gonzalez-Caldito N, Dewey BE, Fitzgerald KC, Glaister J, Filippatou A, Ogbuokiri E, Feldman S, Kwakyi O, Risher H, Crainiceanu C, Pham DL, Van Zijl PC, Mowry EM, Reich DS, Prince JL, Calabresi PA, Saidha S. Mult Scler. 2019 Feb 11:1352458519826364. BACKGROUND:The effects of disease...

Making B cells

We have been discussing whether Epstein Barr Virus could trigger MS, without the requirement for T cells. It is thought that high-affinity (strong binding) isotype–switched (Antibodies such as IgG that develop from proteotypic IgD or IgM producing B cells) antibodies by B cells depends on signals from CD4+ Thelper cells. Antigen (Ag) binding to surface Ig molecules (BCRs) causes naive (mature) B...

Brain Atrophy

ProfG has been addressing the issue of brain shrinkage and asking-Which agents are the best? We may not all agree on what is the best, but one can ask what is/are the worse. If we can address this problem and agree, then surely it is time to say “It’s rubbish! Throw it in the Bin!” (A comment I once heard at an MS Life meeting) The obvious answer is……yep you guessed...

Blocking Calcium, Should we listen to mouse studies or plough on regardless

Calcium Influx through Plasma-Membrane Nanoruptures Drives Axon Degeneration in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Witte ME, Schumacher AM, Mahler CF, Bewersdorf JP, Lehmitz J, Scheiter A, Sánchez P, Williams PR, Griesbeck O, Naumann R, Misgeld T, Kerschensteiner M. Neuron. 2019 Jan 6. pii: S0896-6273(18)31123-1. Axon loss determines persistent disability in multiple sclerosis patients...

Microbiome Research Where will it lead us?

ProfG loves throwing a spanner in the works to get you thinking and keeping us on our toes. However, I have been charstisted for my outspoken views that many of my peers are unthinking lemmings that follow the masses jumping off the intellectual cliff. Microbiome is the answer to autoimmunity is a current dogma and you are spending millions of pounds doing trial after trial in every human disease...

Blood cells clearing up the myelin damage..

Zhou T, Zheng Y, Sun L, Badea SR, Jin Y, Liu Y, Rolfe AJ, Sun H, Wang X, Cheng Z, Huang Z, Zhao N, Sun X, Li J, Fan J, Lee C, Megraw TL, Wu W, Wang G, Ren Y. Microvascular endothelial cells engulf myelin debris and promote macrophage recruitment and fibrosis after neural injury. Nat Neurosci. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.1038/s41593-018-0324-9. [Epub ahead of print] The clearance of damaged...

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