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Education Doube negative memory

In humans B cells can be recognised by the expression of CD19 (a molecule involved in B cell antigen receptor signalling and B cell diferentiation into different B cell sub-types). Memory B cells are recognised by the presence of a marker called CD27 (as survival factor receptor and activation marker also found on activated T cells) and Immunoglobulin (antibody) arrangements. Antibodies serve are...

Looking in the blood or brain for inflammatory markers

NDG may have something to say about this one. In this study they looked for inflammatory markers in the blood and spinal fluid in people with MS. I have removed the bits about predictors as those familiar with the blog, know that these are generally never good enough to say anythng about the individuals. The point I want to make is this, that you may been to be prepared to have a lumbar puncture...

Mortui vivos docent

We haven’t done this in a while but the post from the Cleveland Clinic, reminds me to remind you to consider donation of your tissues You can watch a video here To Registered please visit here MS Society Tissue Bank If you live in the States read this Comprehensive Autopsy Program for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.Dutta R, Mahajan KR, Nakamura K, Ontaneda D, Chen J, Volsko C...

Life on Mars, Suppressor T cells are Back

For those of you not old enough to remember “Life on Mars”….yes it was a TV programme about a Cop who travelled back in time to the 1970s..sexism, bad haircuts, those platform shoes and hideous clothes and all that stuff ….with flash backs to a TV cop show called the Sweeney (The flying squad), who would go after armed robbers and yes it is a David Bowie song from the...

Cannabis and Gut Bacteria. The Answer or more animal nonsense?

Combination of cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), mitigates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by altering the gut microbiome. Al-Ghezi ZZ, Busbee PB, Alghetaa H, Nagarkatti PS, Nagarkatti M. Brain Behav Immun. 2019 pii: S0889-1591(19)30647-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.07.028. [Epub ahead of print] There you have it cannabis works because it...

Blog News: Mistaken Identity

This week ProfB was a victim of mistaken Identity. He got an email from a colleague asking about how to deal with Trichomonas in Mice? Trichomonas is a single cell parasite, which is sexually transmitted. It turns out that D.Baker had written a book called “Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals: Second Edition”. In response ProfB wrote they could perhaps use drugs but that...

Is cholesterol truly bad for you?

Low-density lipoprotein particle, apolipoprotein B (blue) is surrounded by various forms of cholesterol (orange and yellow) and other lipids. JUAN GAERTNER/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Scientists have known for a long time that cholesterol like other basic food components forms an essential component in a healthy human body. It forms the cell membrane architecture (or the cell wall), helps produce the...

How do B cell therapies work?

We have made the case that B cells are important targets for therapy. However this seems to be rather an anti-establishment view, especially if you don’t say it is because the B cells are simply helping T cells. This seems to be the prevailing thought that one person said to me “While substantial evidence suggests that MS is mainly a T cell driven disease, B cells play a non-redundant...

Alemtuzumab and B cells. Snooze and you may lose

About 5 or more years ago Prof G and I went to see Genzyme to propose a study on doing B cell depletion after alemtuzumab to try and limit, ideally prevent, secondary autooimmunity that occurred in about 50% of people with MS who were treated with MS. At the time there was no ocrelizumab, cladribine in the picture and they simply were not interested in B cells. They thought T regs increased after...

Price competition for New drugs doesn’t exisit

I was in the Netherlands at a science meeting (Yep ProfG let’s me out occasionally) and a pharma (marketing) person gave a presentation. They were there for the people with MS and it wasn’t all about the money. Now the Dutch are not known for their tact and tend to say it how it is, from their prospective, and “mushroom food” was uttered. I think Jeffery J in the audience...

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