CategoryLab Lessons

How do statins work?

When I see Sir jeremy I ask the question of how do statins work in MS? Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs, that block an enzyme called HMG-Co Reductase. In doing so it stopped cholesterol formation and any intermediates in the pathway cholesterol pathway Years ago we found that certain molecules had to be prenylated (lipidated) in the blood vessels to allow lymphocytes to migrate through them...

T time….Looking for MS targets

Is MS an autoimmune disease…It is difficult to confirm this view and disease needs to e controlled by antigen-specific means to e more compelling. This study hunted and found 4 antigens that could induce T cell responses and some showed the capacity to induce histological disease. The study seems to re-affirm that the typical myelin antigens favoured by many immunologists give no better...

Where do my Brain Macrophages come from?

When I was a scientific ameoba the big question was what are the antigen presenting cells in the brain. Those around blood vessesl were the most likely first point of contact for an invading white blood cell. Back in the day many people called them pericytes. Back in the day people used to say they were derived from smooth muscle. This is a type of muscle distinct from heart and skeletal muscule...

Aging immune system and progression

This is a review article that you can read if interested Efficacy of Disease Modifying Therapies in Progressive MS and How Immune Senescence May Explain Their Failure.Manouchehri N, Salinas VH, Rabi Yeganeh N, Pitt D, Hussain RZ, Stuve O.Front Neurol. 2022 Mar 31;13:854390. The advent of disease modifying therapies (DMT) in the past two decades has been the cornerstone of successful clinical...

A few cigigies a day doesn’t keep the mouse-MS away

I dont’ report on studies in the Beasties much these days, but this story made me think a few things If you smoke you have an increased chance of developing MS compared to if you don’t smoke. I have to say you are at an increased risk of many other things if you smoke. Is it surprising? Well not really because if the only question you ask in a survey essentially focuses on the...

Hit and Run or Should I say Hit and Crawl. The speed at which white matter damage leads to grey matter changes

We often hear “I swapped to drug X or Y and I still feel I am getting worse”. This not surprising because it takes time for the attacks to run their course, So in this study they looked to see how quickly damage to the white matter (myelinated axons= nerve body) took to show itself by loss of neurons in the grey matter (nerve heads). Here they imaged people repeatedly and they looked...

Going round in Circles. A new regulatory cell to control autoimmunity

We have always had regulatory cells that control immune responsiveness. After the CD8 suppressor came the anergic cells, then CD4 Th1 and Th2 cells, then CD4 T regulatory cells and B regulatory cells made a brief appearrence. However, it looks like we are coming full circle and CD8 are back. A few years ago we could see that CD52 depletion was blocking immunological tolerance formation and it...

Zipping the DMT pyramid: What’s your sNfL Z-score? 

Neurofilament light (NfL) levels are a promising biomarker of disease activity in MS. These brain proteins are released into the cerebrospinal fluid when neurons die and they tell us when MS-related focal inflammation is still damaging the brain or spinal cord. The biggest advantage of NfL over other techniques to measure brain volume loss such as brain MRI is that they can be measured in the...

Pathologists should play more cluedo:-)

Cluedo is a game where someone gets killed and you have to work out who is the perp, the weapon and the place where the attack took place. Pathology is like murder case (Hopefully this will launch when we were on blogger this word triggered the post to become for 18 year olds) and you are left with the crime scene. You have to work out who dunnit. So you find John Doe in a pristine bedroom. What...

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