CategoryLab Lessons

B cell development following EBV infection

This one is hard core science that is way above my pay-grade so it will take time for me to ascertain what it all means, but if there are science geeks out there you may find this of interest. SoRelle ED, Dai J, Reinoso-Vizcaino NM, Barry AP, Chan C, Luftig MA. Time-resolved transcriptomes reveal diverse B cell fate trajectories in the early response to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cell Rep...

Spot the mistake? A self-fulfilling hypothesis

En face this research seems straightforward, but upon reading the methodology of the manuscript my first thought was ‘huh’? Why the ‘huh’? Well, if you’re going to study on humoral immunity (i.e. antibody formation), the drug not to use is Ocrelizumab or any other anti-CD20 for that matter. The MOA (mode of action) of anti-CD20s is to target B-cell function and...

Low neutrophils on Ocrelizumab – is there a trend?

With all drugs to appreciate the full gamut of a drug’s side effect profile you’re pretty much reliant on the comprehensiveness of reporting by patients and clinicians to regulatory authorities once a drug has hit the market. In Ocrelizumab’s case there were initial reports of low neutrophil counts (neutropenia) within the first clinical trials and late-onset neutropenia is a...

Harnessing the pregnancy effect in Multiple Sclerosis

It is now well accepted that MS goes into a period of dormancy during pregnancy. This of course is a protective effect so that the female body doesn’t reject the foetus that is growing within (the foetus is a foreign entity as it’s whole genetic makeup does not come from the mother alone). Increasingly it has become apparent this effect is mediated via the oestrogen hormone, a female...

Understanding the biology of paramagnetic rims in Multiple Sclerosis

Some of you may have not yet heard about paramagnetic rims in MS lesions. Their presence on MRI scans is felt to represent iron rich microglial inflammation in the brain occurring in a subset of individuals. Pathologically iron rims reflect slowly expanding chronically active MS lesions (see below). Figure: Paramagnetic lesion arrowed in (a) in a 34 y with RRMS. [Source-this article] The presence...

Project hindsight: Dutch aHSCT awakening! 

Lately, there has been a lot of of debate about the position of aHSCT in the MS treatment field. Evolving insights fuelled by the actions of MS charities and the conclusions of the recent ECTRIMS focused workshop on aHSCT have triggered the Dutch Association of Neurologists to change their point of view on the matter, namely that there is no role for aHSCT in the context of MS treatment. In May...

How do statins work?

When I see Sir jeremy I ask the question of how do statins work in MS? Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs, that block an enzyme called HMG-Co Reductase. In doing so it stopped cholesterol formation and any intermediates in the pathway cholesterol pathway Years ago we found that certain molecules had to be prenylated (lipidated) in the blood vessels to allow lymphocytes to migrate through them...

T time….Looking for MS targets

Is MS an autoimmune disease…It is difficult to confirm this view and disease needs to e controlled by antigen-specific means to e more compelling. This study hunted and found 4 antigens that could induce T cell responses and some showed the capacity to induce histological disease. The study seems to re-affirm that the typical myelin antigens favoured by many immunologists give no better...

Where do my Brain Macrophages come from?

When I was a scientific ameoba the big question was what are the antigen presenting cells in the brain. Those around blood vessesl were the most likely first point of contact for an invading white blood cell. Back in the day many people called them pericytes. Back in the day people used to say they were derived from smooth muscle. This is a type of muscle distinct from heart and skeletal muscule...

Aging immune system and progression

This is a review article that you can read if interested Efficacy of Disease Modifying Therapies in Progressive MS and How Immune Senescence May Explain Their Failure.Manouchehri N, Salinas VH, Rabi Yeganeh N, Pitt D, Hussain RZ, Stuve O.Front Neurol. 2022 Mar 31;13:854390. The advent of disease modifying therapies (DMT) in the past two decades has been the cornerstone of successful clinical...

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