CategoryLab Lessons

Are B cells important?

This week we have had people telling us that T cells are changed in early MS (Click here) and that there were no changes in the B cells. Now we have a suggestion that B cells were active in early MS. I got excited when I saw the title about B cells in early MS. However, then I see the data, this is when I think the figures do not fit the descriptions. They fail the smack you in the eye test (The...

Guidelines for Managing Thyroid dysfunction

This post is for any health-professions who read the blog. This gives guidelines for managing thyroid problems notably after alemtuzumab 2019 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Dysfunction following Immune Reconstitution Therapy. Muller I, Moran C, Lecumberri B, Decallonne B, Robertson N, Jones J, Dayan CM. Eur Thyroid J. 2019 Jul;8(4):173-185. Thyroid...

Is this the next treatment for MS…If you have psychosis?

We all have heard about BioRXiV (Bioarchive), where people can deposit their preprints before publication on a journal. Now there is not MedRXiv (Medarchive). All that needs to be done is link this up to Pubmed and we can cut out the middle man (publisher). A free archive that is open access and you get rid of the impact factor and the publishing mess in one easy swoop. What’s not to like...

the HYPE study

It is clear that many MSers on continuous anti-CD20 therapy are concerned about the risk of developing hypogammaglobulinaemia and subsequent infections. Yesterday, I spoke to several neurologists at the O’HAND investigators meeting in Barcelona who informed me that they are considering giving their ocrelizumab-treated patients hyperimmune globulin replacement therapy (HYPE-Ig-RT) when they...

WORMS for MS

This study has been sometime coming and was I think probably originally based on the idea that a worm infection can drive a TH2 (anti-inflammatory) from a TH1 (pro-inflammatory) response. I think there were a number of studies planned, but this study from Nottingham passed the finish line. In this study people were infected with the hookworm parasite and I guess became biobombs as the worms would...

Human MS becomes EAE again, as its T cells that springs out in twin studies

In the new era of preprint papers you can put your stuff online, even before it is reviewed. Todays offering looks at twins, one with MS and one without an MS diagnosis. However when they look at the twin without a diagnosis, they find MRI features that they think could be early MS. These people are in what we call the prodromal phase. In this study they look at the immune component and conclude...

Who said anti-CD20 therapies were safe?

When I highlighted the risk of hypogammaglobulinaemia and infection in MSers receiving anti-CD20 therapy after ECTRIMS I go a very long email from someone from Roche playing down the risks. The following study is therefore very timely and shows that when comparing interferon-beta, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod and rituximab with each other it is rituximab that comes out worst in...

Half way to explaining multiple sclerosis

Genetic roots of multiple sclerosis This paper is open access and so for the more adventuous and people with an interest in genes, I suggest that you read the paper. If not I think the abstract and summaries say sufficient. Genes focus interest on the microglia. I would say about time. There is a clear CD4 bias in the thought process as they focused on CD4 naive T cells and from a personal point...

Diabetes drug to the rescue. Making old cells young again

As you get older you do not repair as well, compared to when you are younger. This has been known for some time and a few years ago Prof Franklinstein sewed mice together and determined that young macrophages could allow old mice to repair. So it is an obvious thing to look for the elixior of youth. In other studies a blood protein promoted youthful effects in nerves Metformin is a treatment...

A smoking gun?

The big hole in the EBV hypothesis of MS is how does the virus cause the disease at a molecular and immunological level. There are as many theories as thinkers.  One theory is that EBV infects the CNS and MS is caused by an immune response to the virus in the brain of MSers. MS is then due to bystander damage of the immune cells finding and attacking the EBV infected cells. The evidence that EBV...

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